TOXICITY IN COLUBRID SNAKES OF THE WORLD
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

created by Donald M. McKinstry, Ph.D.

Fig.160. - Rapports de la glande venimeuse, gv, et des dents chez le Tropidonotus natrix. gls, glande
labiale supérieure; lp, ligament postérieur de la gl. venimeuse.  Orig. A.

Fig. 161. - Rapports de la glande venimeuse et des dents chez le Coelopeltis monspessulana.  Orig.  A.

Drawings and captions from Marie Phisalix. 1922.  Animaux Venimeux et Venins, Vol. 2.  Masson et Cie, Paris.


Types of information include

    References are in chronological order.

Quick jump to:

2001 and earlier
1997 and earlier
1995 and earlier
1989 and earlier
1985 and earlier
1979 and earlier
1975 and earlier
1969 and earlier
1959 and earlier
1949 and earlier
1939 and earlier
1899 and earlier

    Annotations are of the informative or indicative type.

    This annotated bibliography is under development.  


Li, Q.-B., G.-W. Huang, K. Kinjoh, M. Nakamura, and T. Kosugi.  2001.  Hematological studies on DIC-like findings observed in patients with snakebite in south China.  Toxicon 39(10):943-948.  Report two cases Rhabdophis subminiatus (Rs.) bite: antithrombin III, alpha2 - plasmin inhibitor decreased, complete defibrinogenation, severe hemorrhage, no "evidence of severe multiple organ damage"; note Rs. "still...classified...non-venomous..."

Albolea, A. B. P., M. G. Salomão, R. S. Jordão, and S. M. Almeida-Santos.  2000.  Why non-poisonous snakes cause accidents?  Toxicon 38(4):567 (abstract).  Report for "colubrids H. modestus and L. miliaris" Brazil: incidence snakebite influenced by foraging, reproductive level; saliva toxic to mice, fish; human envenomations - hemorrhage, pain, edema.

Hill, R. E. and S. P. Mackessy.  2000.  Characterization of venom (Duvernoy's secretion) from twelve species of colubrid snakes and partial sequence of four venom proteins.  Toxicon 38(12):1663-1687.  Report enzyme assays, electrophoresis, protein sequencing, etc. for venom, saliva New, Old World species; observe Thamnophis, Diadophis, Hypsiglena bites lethal to other snakes.

Seow, E., P. Kuperan, S. K. Goh, and P. Gopalakrishnakone.  2000.  Morbidity after a bite from a 'non-venomous' pet snake.  Singapore Medical Journal 41(1):34-35.  Report prolonged bite Rhabdophis subminiatus - "disseminated intravascular coagulopathy...bleeding diathesis...associated complications"; treated with transfusions (cryoprecipitate, etc.), physiotherapy; note is "first reported case" this type South East Asia.

Manning, B., M. Galbo, and G. Klapman.  1999.  First report of a symptomatic South American false water cobra envenomation.  Journal of Toxicology Clinical Toxicology 37(5):613 (abstract).  Report prolonged bite, Hydrodynastes gigas, pet store employee, California - hospitalized with "significant local swelling, pain, muscle paralysis, and arrhythmias."

Pérez, J. C. and E. E. Sánchez.  1999.  Natural protease inhibitors to hemorrhagins in snake venoms and their potential use in medicine.  Toxicon 37(5):703-728.  In review article list Virginia opossum innate immunity to Dispholidus typus venom (Table 2).

Ribeiro, L. A., G. Puorto, and M. T. Jorge.  1999.  Bites by the colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii: a clinical and epidemiological study of 43 cases.  Toxicon 37(6):943-948.  Report generally mild effects - local inflammation, etc., no evidence clotting abnormality; find no supporting information earlier fatal case; most bites daytime, warmer months, hands.

Scott, L., N. Crowther, B. Jacobson, and J. Southern.  1999.  Antibody production against the venom of Dispholidus typus.  Toxicon 37(2):318-319 (abstract).  Note current antivenom very costly but lifesaving; report production less expensive equine monoclonal antibodies from horse x mouse heterohybridoma fusion.

Bedry, R., G. Hilbert, M. Goyffon, P. Laffort, and E. Parrens.  1998.  Is the saliva of the european whip snake (Coluber viridiflavus) neurotoxic?  Toxicon 36(12):1729 (abstract).  Report snakebite: dizzy, "major muscular weakness"; treated in ICU - vertigo, vomiting, ptosis, weakness neck, etc.; speculate ethanol intoxication or envenomation.

Mackessy, S. P.  1998.  Isolation and partial amino acid sequence of a novel metalloprotease from the venom of the colubrid snake Hydrodynastes gigas (false water cobra).  Toxicon 36(9):1250 (abstract).  Notes bites "produce severe edema, tissue necrosis and pain"; describes enzymatic properties venom; reports partial characterization caseinolytic metalloprotease.

Prado-Franceschi, J., S. Hyslop, J. C. Cogo, A. L. Andrade, M. T. Assakura, A. P. Reichl, M. A. Cruz-Höfling, and L. Rodrigues-Simioni.  1998.  Characterization of a myotoxin from the Duvernoy's gland secretion of the xenodontine colubrid Philodryas olfersii (green snake): effects on striated muscle and the neuromuscular junction.  Toxicon 36(10):1407-1421.  Report toxin single chain polypeptide, causes release creatine kinase, partial lysis muscle cells, partially blocks potassium-evoked contractures; extensive review, discussion.

Wüster, W., P. Golay, and D. A. Warrell.  1998.  Synopsis of recent developments in venomous snake systematics, No. 2.  Toxicon 36(2):299-307.  Stress importance accuracy systematics in toxinology; discuss Elapomorphus, Apostolepis, revalidated Phalotris, Rhabdophis; note these snakes capable or potentially capable fatal envenomation humans.

de Araújo, M. E. and A. C. dos Santos.  1997.  Cases of human envenomation caused by Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (Serpentes: Colubridae).  Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 30(6):517-519.  Report two cases - pain, prolonged edema hand to axilla (additionally ecchymoses, suppuration P. olfersii); discuss controversy treatment Philodryas snakebite with anti-botropic serum.

Gonçalves, L. R. C., N. Yamanouye, G. B. Nuñez-Burgos, M. F. D. Furtado, L. R. G. Britto, and J. Nicolau.  1997.  Detection of calcium-binding proteins in venom and Duvernoy's glands of South American snakes and their secretions.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 118C(2):207-211.  Report calcium-binding proteins Duvernoy's gland extracts Phylodryas patagoniensis, Oxyrhopus trigeminus; discuss role, use in understanding evolution venomous snakes.

Greene, H. W.  1997.  Snakes: The Evolution of Mystery in Nature.  University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 351 pp.  Provides lucid discussion toxicity colubrids, includes under Special Topics "Deadly Colubrids and Famous Herpetologists."

Hill, R. E. and S. P. Mackessy.  1997.  Venom yields from several species of colubrid snakes and differential effects of ketamine.  Toxicon 35(5):671-678.  Review collection methods, report enhanced yields modified ketamine/pilocarpine method, ten species sampled, stress timeliness studies colubrid venoms.

Kanamine, L.  1997.  Clinton budget strikes at brown tree snake.  USA Today, February 17, page 3A.  USA Today Division of Gannett Co., Inc., McLean, VA.  Reports hospitals Guam have treated more than 200 people for nonfatal snakebite brown tree snake; "The venom is like a wasp sting to adults, but a greater danger for children." 

Murphy, J. C.  1997.  Amphibians and Reptiles of Trinidad and Tobago.  Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL, 245 pp.  Writes of xenodontine snakes region "none...known to pose serious danger to humans."  

Russell, F. E., F. G. Walter, T. A. Bey, and M. C. Fernandez.  1997.  Review article - Snakes and snakebite in Central America.  Toxicon 35(10):1469-1522.  Note Conophis, Erythrolamprus, Philodryas implicated significant poisoning; mention several additional colubrid genera; no antivenoms available, envenomations rarely serious.

Scott, N.  1997.  Personal communication to: R. E. Hill and S. P. Mackessy.  2000.  Characterization of venom (Duvernoy's secretion) from twelve species of colubrid snakes and partial sequence of four venom proteins.  Toxicon 38(12):1663-1687.  Reports bite Hydrodynastes gigas, Paraguay - localized bleeding, pain, inflammation, yellow discoloration, etc., resolved by seven days.

Fontana, M. D., M. G. Heleno, and O. Vital Brazil.  1996.  Mode of action of Duvernoy's gland extracts from the colubrid Dryadophis bifossatus in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation.  Toxicon 34(10):1187-1190.  Report neuromuscular blockade via neurotoxin(s) interaction with end-plate cholinergic receptors; suggest comparison chemical structures colubrid neurotoxins, elapid postsynaptic neurotoxins.

Jackson, K. and T. H. Fritts.  1996.  Observations of a grooved anterior fang in Psammodynastes pulverulentus: does the mock viper resemble a protoelapid?  Journal of Herpetology 30(1):128-131.  Explore possible evolutionary relationships between grooved posterior, anterior fangs colubrids and the anterior fangs elapids; suggest anterior, posterior fangs not homologous.

Lee, J. C.  1996.  The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula.  Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 500 pp.  Reports Coniophanes imperialis bite - "intense throbbing pain and muscular stiffness"; Conophis lineatus bite - "punctures bled copiously," swelling into lower arm, "pain...axillary lymph nodes." 

McKinstry, D. M.  1996.  Toxicity in colubrid snakes of the world: selected findings from the literature (abstract).  Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 7(4):345-346.  Provides observations on partial compilation world literature, gives rationale for comprehensive review.

Minton, S. A.  1996.  Bites by non-native venomous snakes in the United States.  Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 7(4):297-303.  Reports of 164 consultations 1977 - 1995 one case each for Boiga, Dispholidus, Leioheterodon, Rhabdophis; Rhabdophis case "coagulopathy...systemic envenomation."

Minton, S. A.  1996.  Are there any nonvenomous snakes?  An update on colubrid envenoming.  Advances in Herpetoculture (1):127-134.  Provides highly readable account lineage, distribution, habits, venom, envenomation, treatment, legal aspects, speculation; closes with nostalgic story.

White, J. and H. Persson.  1996.  32.  Snakes.  Pp. 757-802.  In J. Descotes (editor),  Human Toxicology.  Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam, 839 pp.  List certain species Boiga, Dispholidus, Elapomorphus, Malpolon, Rhabdophis, Thelotornis, Tachymenis in Table 32.1 "Consolidated information...for all dangerous venomous snakes...."; provide brief discussion. 

Fan, H. W. and J. L. Cardoso.  1995.  Clinical toxicology of snake bites in South America.  Chap. 31, Pp. 667-688.  In J. Meier and J. White (editors), Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 752 pp.  Review toxinology Philodryas, Clelia; provide records 'non envenoming' snakebite, five colubrid genera, Hospital Vital Brazil.

Gomez, H. F. and R. C. Dart.  1995.  Clinical toxicology of snakebite in North America.  Chap. 29,  Pp. 619-644.  In J. Meier and J. White (editors), Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 752 pp.  Do not include colubrids in listing for region.

Gutiérrez, J. M.  1995.  Clinical toxicology of snakebite in Central America.  Chap. 30,  Pp. 645-665.  In J. Meier and J. White (editors) Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 752 pp.  Writes most rear-fanged snakes of region "do not cause relevant envenomings in humans," notes Conophis lineatus "some degree of envenoming..."

Lake, A. R. and T. R. Trevor-Jones.  1995.  Formation of the poison fang of the boomslang Dispholidus typus.  African Journal of Science 91(7):329-330.  Report numerous functional, replacement fangs; fang attachment "fibrous hinge"; structure - function relationships fang cross-sectional profile; apposition adjacent fangs could form "closed venom canal."

Malik, G. M.  1995.  Snake bites in adults from the Asir region of southern Saudi Arabia.  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 52(4):314-317.  Reports bite cases Coluber rhodorachis - variable occurrence mild local pain, swelling, redness, blisters, lymphadenitis; no evidence systemic envenomation or coagulopathy.

McKinstry, D. M.  1995.  Toxicity in colubrid snakes of the world (abstract).  Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 6(2):228.  Provides brief review.

Meier, J.  1995.  Commercially available antivenoms ("hyperimmune sera," "antivenins," "antisera") for antivenom therapy.  Chap. 32,  Pp. 689-721.  In J. Meier and J. White (editors), Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 752 pp.  Reports availability Dispholidus typus (boomslang antivenom), Rhabdophis tigrinus, Rhabdophis spp. (anti-yamakagashi antivenom); provides algorithm for access to listings.

Meier, J. and K. F. Stocker.  1995.  Biology and distribution of venomous snakes of medical importance and the composition of snake venoms.  Pp. 367-412.  In J. Meier and J. White (editors), Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 752 pp.  Include information toxinology colubrid snakes.

Nishioka, S. A., P. V. P. Silveira, and F. A. Bauab.  1995.  Bite marks are useful for the differential diagnosis of snakebite in Brazil.  Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 6(2):183-188.  Provide descriptions, photographs for differential diagnosis solenoglyph, opisthoglyph, aglyph bites.

Norris, R. L .  1995.  Bite marks and the diagnosis of venomous snakebite (editorial).  Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 6(2):159-161.  Emphasizes that "nonvenomous" bite pattern "several rows of multiple teeth marks" can be produced by certain dangerously venomous colubrids including Dispholidus, Thelotornis, Rhabdophis.

Persson, H.  1995.  Clinical toxicology of snakebite in Europe.  Chap. 25, Pp. 413-432.  In J. Meier and J. White (editors), Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 752 pp.  Mentions Malpolon monspessulanus envenomation; notes bites Elaphe "not associated with significant envenoming."

Ramachandran, S., B. Ganaikabahu, K. Pushparajan, and J. Wijesekera.  1995.  Electroencephalographic abnormalities in patients with snake bites.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 52(1):25-28.  Include case Cerberus r. rhynchops bite - EEC grade la, 2b recorded; no effects (clinical, lab) of envenomation noted.

Rossi, J. V. and R. Rossi.  1995.  Snakes of the United States and Canada, Vol. 2.  Western Area.  Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, FL, 325 pp.  Mention "venom" effects - Coniophanes, Heterodon, Hypsiglena, Leptodeira, Oxybelis, Tantilla, Thamnophis, Trimorphodon. 

Spawls, S. and B. Branch.  1995.  The Dangerous Snakes of Africa.  Ralph Curtis-Books, Sanibel Island, FL, 192 pp.  Provide extensive, concise information; emphasize Dispholidus, Thelotornis, Boiga blandingii.

Vaughan-Scott, T. and R. G. Lobetti.  1995.  Boomslang envenomation in a dog.  Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 66(4):265-267.  Report dog, bitten playing with snake, developed haemorrhagic diathesis, successful treatment boomslang antiserum, etc.; provide lab findings, discuss treatment.

Warrell, D. A.  1995.  Clinical toxicology of snakebite in Africa and the Middle East/Arabian Peninsula.  Chap. 26, Pp. 433-492.  In J. Meier and J. White (editors), Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 752 pp.  Lists eleven colubrid genera region as venomous, ranked by degree danger; provides discussion; notes Philothamnus natalensis "venom...powerful procoagulant activity."

Warrell, D. A.  1995.  Clinical toxicology of snakebite in Asia.  Chap. 27, Pp. 493-594.  In J. Meier and J. White (editors),  Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 752 pp.  Lists eight colubrid genera region as venomous, ranked by degree danger; provides information bite effects, treatment, etc.; notes 'Aodaisho' (Elaphe climacophora) Case 1 (Mandell, et al., 1980, Pediatrics 65:314-317) appears misidentified, was likely Rhabdophis tigrinus.

White, J.  1995.  Clinical toxicology of snakebite in Australia and New Guinea.  Chap. 28, Pp. 595-617.  In J. Meier and J. White (editors), Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., 752 pp.  Writes no colubrids of region "appear to cause significant envenoming in man (possible exception...Boiga irregularis)."

Assakura, M. T., A. P. Reichl, and F. R. Mandelbaum.  1994.  Isolation and characterization of five fibrin (ogen) olytic enzymes from the venom of Philodryas olfersii (green snake).  Toxicon 32(7):819-831.  Report degradation fibrinogen, fibrin in vitro; also hemorrhagic activity one enzyme; reduction fibrinogen level rats; relate findings to effects envenomation.

Burdick, A.  1994.  Invasion of the nature snatchers.  The New York Times Magazine (November 13):49-55, 78-87.  Includes account Boiga irregularis ("venom relatively mild") invasion Guam, provides photos.

Foster, S. and R. A. Caras.  1994.  A Field Guide to Venomous Animals and Poisonous Plants (Peterson Field Guide).  Houghton Mifflin Co., New York, NY, 244 pp.  Include rear-fanged snakes Trimorphodon, Leptodeira - note not dangerous unless handled.

Fowler, I. R. and M. G. Salomão.  1994.  Activity patterns in the colubrid snake genus Philodryas and their relationship to reproduction and snakebite.  Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 29(10):229-232.  Report "unimodal summer peak...incidence...snakebite" Brazil - P. patagoniensis (highest number cases), P. olfersii (intermediate), P. aestivus (lowest); note P. olfersii bites "more highly serious."

Fritts, T. H., M. J . McCoid, and R. L. Haddock.  1994.  Symptoms and circumstances associated with bites by the brown tree snake (Colubridae: Boiga irregularis) on Guam.  Journal of Herpetology 28(1):27-33.  Report peak incidence May; victims usually sleeping, often children; effects variable - localized pain, discoloration, swelling; respiratory, neurological symptoms children.

Glaw, F. and M. Vences.  1994.  A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, 2nd edition.  M. Vences and F. Glaw Verlags GbR, Cologne, 480 pp.  List genera of subfamily Boiginae Madagascar: Alluaudina, Geodipsas, Ithycyphus, Langaha, Madagascarophis, Stenophis, Mimophis, Brygophis; note presence "poisonous fangs" this subfamily.

Gomez, H. F., M. Davis, S. Phillips, P. McKinney, and J. Brent.  1994.  Human envenomation from a wandering garter snake.  Annals of Emergency Medicine 23(5):1119-1122.  Report local edema, ecchymosis, hemorrhagic vesicles after prolonged bite, no systemic effects; describe hospital treatment; include photos.

Grenard, S.  1994.  Snakebite: are "non-poisonous" colubrids really harmless?  Reptile and Amphibian Magazine (September-October):51-63.  Provides review history, venom apparatus, envenomation, etc., emphasis Heterodon; discusses possibility some bite effects due to allergic or hypersensitivity reactions.

Marsh, N.  1994.  Inventory of haemorrhagic factors from snake venoms.  Thrombosis and Haemostasis 71(6):793-797.  Lists Malpolon monspessulanus, Philodryas olfersii; notes haemorrhagic toxins typically do not produce clotting.

Marsh, N. A.  1994.  Snake venoms affecting the haemostatic mechanism - a consideration of their mechanisms, practical applications and biological significance.  Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 5(3):399-410.  Lists Dispholidus typus, Rhabdophis t. tigrinus, Thelotornis kirtlandi capensis direct activators (Group 1) of prothrombin; D. typus thrombin-like enzyme; Malpolon monspessulanus, Philodryas olfersii in separate group haemorrhagic venoms.

Nishioka, S. A. and P. V. P. Silveira.  1994.  Philodryas patagoniensis bite and local envenoming.  Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 36(3):279-281.  Report "swelling and warmth...bitten limb"; snake misidentified, patient given Bothrops antivenom; stress need dissemination information colubrid snakebite.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A.  1994.  Are the Duvernoy's gland secretions of colubrid snakes venoms?  Journal of Herpetology 28(3):388-390.  Argues that secretions (DGSs) some colubrids, e.g. Arrhyton, Hypsiglena, Alsophis, etc. are important to prey capture and thus venoms; disputes rapid prey death (RPD) as criterion.

Salomão, M. G. and I. L. Laporta-Ferreira.  1994.  The role of secretions from the supralabial, infralabial, and Duvernoy's glands of the slug-eating snake Sibynomorphus mikani (Colubridae: Dipsadinae) in the immobilization of molluscan prey.  Journal of Herpetology 28(3):369-371.  "Hypothesize...role...secretion...Duvernoy's glands...paralyzing, role...secretions...other two glands...to initiate...digestive process."

Silva, M.  1994.  Personal communication to Fowler, I. R. and M. G. Salomão.  Activity patterns in the colubrid snake genus Philodryas and their relationship to reproduction and snakebite.  Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Association 29(10):229-232.  Reports Philodryas bite: "death recorded in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 1992."

Snow, R. W., R. Bronzan, T. Roques, C. Nyamawi, S. Murphy, and K. Marsh.  1994.  The prevalence and morbidity of snake bite and treatment-seeking behavior among a rural Kenyan population.  Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 88(6):665-671.  Report rear-fanged species implicated 20 of 26 cases where reliable description snake available; list these snakes, e.g. Psammophis, non-venomous.

Weinstein, S. A. and K. V. Kardong.  1994.  Review article: properties of Duvernoy's secretions from opisthoglyphous and aglyphous colubrid snakes.  Toxicon 32(10):1161-1185.  Provide comprehensive review; include information on methods, research ideas, etc.

Witwer, M. T.  1994.  Heterodon and other not-so-harmless "harmless" snakes.  Journal Northern Ohio Association of Herpetologists (NOAH) 16(1):12-20.  Reviews toxicity colubrid snakes, emphasis Heterodon; includes case histories snakebite, discussion Duvernoy's gland, dentition.

Burchfield, P. M.  1993.  An unusual dietary inclusion for the cat-eyed snake, Leptodeira septentrionalis septentrionalis.  Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 28(12):266-267.  Reports possible lethal effect venom on prey (snake, lizard); speculates also use "venom as a defensive weapon against larger ophiophagic species."

Cogo, J. C., M. T. Assakura, F. Mandelbaum, M. A. Cruz-Hofling, J. Prado-Franceschi, and L. Rodrigues-Simioni.  1993.  The effects of Philodryas olfersii venom and its components on the chick biventer cervicis preparation.  Third Congresso Latino-Americano de Herpetologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, São Paulo:116.  Conclude venom promotes "blockade of muscular twitch-tension," causes fiber necrosis; "apparently does not act on mammalian preparation but is very effective on avian muscles."

Datta, G. and A. T. Tu.  1993.  Toxicology and biochemistry of Colubridae venom.  Journal of Toxicology - Toxin Reviews 12(1):63-89.  Provide review venom apparatus, envenomation, toxicology, biochemistry.

Hayes, W. K., P. Lavín-Murcio, and K. V. Kardong.  1993.  Delivery of Duvernoy's secretion into prey by the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis (Serpentes: Colubridae).  Toxicon 31(7):881-887.  Report feeding strikes deliver equal amounts secretion to integument, viscera mice (ELISA analysis); support hypothesis primary role secretion to promote digestion, not kill prey.

Hutton, R. A. and D. A. Warrell.  1993.  Action of snake venom components on the haemostatic system.  Blood Reviews 7(3):176-189.  Review procoagulant activity venom Dispholidus, Thelotornis, Rhabdophis; list these plus Philodryas olfersii capable causing "spontaneous systemic bleeding."

Kardong, K. V. and P. A. Lavin-Murcio.  1993.  Venom delivery of snakes as high-pressure and low-pressure systems.  Copeia (3):644-650.  From anatomic, experimental study (Crotalus, Boiga) and literature review conclude viperids, elapids high pressure quick delivery system, colubrids low pressure protracted delivery system; discuss significance.

Kuch, U. and U. Jesberger.  1993.  Human envenomation from the bite of the South American colubrid snake species Philodrayas baroni Berg, 1895.  The Snake 25(1):63-65.  Report localized pain, edema, petachiae, ecchymosis, "red lymphatic line" extending to axilla; review literature (1916-) snakebite Philodryas; recommend caution.

Rochelle, M. J. and K. V. Kardong.  1993.  Constriction verses envenomation in prey capture by the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis (Squamata: Colubridae).  Herpetologica 49(3):301-304.  Report from feeding trials (intact snakes vs. snakes deprived envenomation capability) - constriction, not envenomation, major factor rapid death prey; suggest reevaluation role Duvernoy's gland.

Weed, H. G.  1993.  Nonvenomous snakebite in Massachusetts: prophylactic antibiotics are unnecessary.  Annals of Emergency Medicine 22(2):220-224.  Reports Thamnophis (47 cases), Storeria (3), Elaphe (2), Nerodia (1), Lampropeltis (1): "wounds...pinpoint abrasions...no erythema, edema, blistering, or lymphangitic streaking," no prolonged bleeding.

Weinstein, S. A. and L. A. Smith.  1993.  Chromatographic profiles and properties of Duvernoy's secretions from some boigine and dispholidine colubrids.  Herpetologica 49(1):78-94.  Report dispholidines more toxic, higher protease, hemorrhagin activities, more complex electrophoretic profiles, etc.; also various immunoidentities, both subfamilies, with elapid, crotalid, viperid venoms; additional findings.

Zug, G. R.  1993.  Herpetology.  Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 527 pp.  Comments rear-fanged snakes - "venoms...often prey-specific...variable toxicity to  humans"; notes Thelotornis, Dispholidus dangerous.

Assakura, M. T., M. Da Graca Salomão, G. Puorto, and F. R. Mandelbaum.  1992.  Hemorrhagic, fibrinogenolytic and edema-forming activities of the venom of the colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii (green snake).  Toxicon 30(4):427-438.  Report "high hemorrhagic, edema-inducing and fibrin(ogen)olytic activities"; no fibrinogenase or procoagulant activity; neutralization of hemorrhagic activity by Bothrops antivenom.

Chiszar, D., S. A. Weinstein, and H. M. Smith.  1992.  Liquid and dry venom yields from brown tree snakes, Boiga irregularis (Merrem).  Pp. 11-13.  In P. D. Strimple (editor), Contributions in Herpetology.  Greater Cincinnati Herpetological Society, Cincinnati, OH, 111 pp.  Report that large specimens "produce exceptional amounts of venom by comparison with other opisthoglyphous colubrids."

Davis, M., H. F. Gomez, S. Phillips, P. McKinney, and J. Brent.  1992.  Human envenomation from a wandering garter snake (Thamnophis elegans vagrans) (abstract).  Veterinary and Human Toxicology 34(4):342.  Report prolonged bite - localized pain, swelling, ecchymotic areas, hemorrhagic vesicles, no systemic effects, lab values (hospital) normal.

Glenn, J. L., L. W. Porras, R. D. Nohavec, and R. C. Straight.  1992.  Analysis of the Duvernoy's gland and oral secretions of Hydrodynastes gigas (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril) (Reptilia: Serpentes).  Pp. 19-26.  In P. D. Strimple (editor), Contributions in Herpetology.  Greater Cincinnati Herpetological Society, Cincinnati, OH, 111 pp.  Describe venom apparatus; assay both venom Duvernoy's gland, saliva - chromatography, electrophoresis, toxicity, proteolytic activity; find both secretions toxic; urge caution.

Guinea, M. L., L. McMorrow, and N. Peerzada.  1992.  Yield and molecular weight of the Duvernoy's gland secretions of the dog-faced mud snake Cerberus rynchops (Serpentes: Colubridae: Homalopsinae) (abstract).  Toxicon 30(5):516.  Report yields 10 microliters per snake, protein fractions electrophoresis, increased clotting (activated partial thromboplastin). time.

Hati, A. K., M. Mandal, M. K. De, H. Mukherjee, and R. N. Hati.  1992.  Epidemiology of snake bite in the District of Burdwan, West Bengal.  Journal of the Indian Medical Association 90(6):145-147.  Report for 1980-1989 307 cases of which 259 were from "non-poisonous" snakes, primarily "common water snakes and wolf snakes."

Hoffmann, J. J. M. L., M. Vijgen, R. E.  H. Smeets, and P. G. Melman.  1992.  Haemostatic effects in vivo after snakebite by the red-necked keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus).  Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 3(4):461-464.  Report coagulation studies patient (Smeets, et al., 1991, Journal of Internal Medicine 230:351-354) - "postulate...defibrination...caused by intravascular coagulation" due to activation "prothrombin and probably also factor X, with subsequent secondary fibrinolysis"; discuss treatment.

Leisewitz, A. L. and T. W. Naude.  1992.  The clinical management of snake bite poisoning in dogs.  South African Veterinary Medicine 5(1?):51-56.  Write envenomation by Dispholidus, Thelotornis in domestic animals "not recorded but is...encountered (Swart, Nelspruit - personal communication 1992)."

Leviton, A. E., S. C. Anderson, K. Adler, and S. A. Minton.  1992.  Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles.  Contributions to Herpetology, No. 8.  Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Miami University, Oxford, OH, 264 pp.  Note Malpolon, Coluber, Psammophis, Spalerosophis, Telescopus contain species incriminated or suspected of causing perhaps painful but not life threatening envenomation.

Rodriguez-Robles, J. A. and R. Thomas.  1992.  Venom function in the Puerto Rican racer, Alsophis portoricensis (Serpentes: Colubridae).  Copeia (1):62-68.  Report "digestion of envenomated anoles was faster than that of nonenvenomated lizards" in carefully controlled study.

Rosenberg, H. I.  1992.  An improved method for collecting secretion from Duvernoy's gland of colubrid snakes.  Copeia (1):244-246.  Reports use of drugs (halothane, ketamine hydrochloride, pilocarpine) to collect increased yields.

Rosenberg, H. I., S. Kinamon, E. Kochva, and A. Bdolah.  1992.  The secretion of Duvernoy's gland of Malpolon monspessulanus induces haemorrhage in the lungs of mice.  Toxicon 30(8):920-924.  Report isolation toxic protein (CM-b):i.v. LD 50 mice 1 microgram/g, induced haemorrhage lungs; no proteolytic or procoagulant activity in vitro; discuss aetiology haemorrhage, consider disseminated intravascular coagulation unlikely.

Rossi, J. V.  1992.  Snakes of the United States and Canada, Vol. 1.  Eastern Area.  Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL, 209 pp.  Includes drawings Rhadinea, Tantilla to illustrate "venom" effect on prey; writes Heterodon bite "could be potentially serious."

Silveira, P. V. P. and S. de A. Nishioka.  1992.  Non-venomous snake bite and snake bite without envenoming in a Brazilian teaching hospital.  Analysis of 91 cases.  Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 34(6):499-503.  Report Philodryas olfersii bite - "severe local pain, swelling...redness...normal clotting time"; Sibynomorphus mikanii bite - "prolonged clotting time."  

Tan, N. H. and G. Ponnudurai.  1992.  Comparative study of the enzymatic, hemorrhagic, procoagulant and anticoagulant activities of some animal venoms.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 103C(2):299-302.  Report venoms two Boiga species, Dispholidus generally low enzymatic activities but that Dispholidus venom showed characteristics crotalid venoms, e.g. hemorrhagic, procoagulant activity.

Veverka, J.  1992.  Personal communication to: J. V. Rossi and R. Rossi.  1995.  Snakes of the United States and Canada, Vol. 2.  Western Area.  Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL, 325 pp.  Reports bite Heterodon nasicus -  "one such bite resulted in 3 days in a hospital and permanent scarring for one individual."

Viravan, C., S. Looareesuwan, W. Kosakarn, V. Wuthiekanun, C. J. McCarthy, A. F. Stimson, D. Bunnag, T. Harinasuta, and D. A. Warrell.  1992.  A national hospital-based survey of snakes responsible for bites in Thailand.  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86(1):100-106.  Report five cases Rhabdophis subminiatus (0.4% of total), all accidental, e.g. snake "trodden on," "negligible effects"; include photo teeth R. subminiatus.

Young, R. A.  1992.  Effects of Duvernoy's gland secretions from the eastern hognose snake, Heterodon platirhinos, on smooth muscle and neuromuscular junction.  Toxicon 30(7):775-779.  Reports neuromuscular blockade; both excitatory, inhibitory effect smooth muscle; mild toxicity mice; advises against considering Heterodon "of unequivocal clinical significance."

Zalisko, E. J. and K. V. Kardong.  1992.  Histology and histochemistry of the Duvernoy's gland of the brown tree snake Boiga irregularis (Colubridae).  Copeia (3):791-799.  Report structural, chemical nature of gland, find storage space limited, conclude "is histologically and anatomically distinct from a true venom gland."

Akimoto, R., Y. Watanabe, A. Sakai, Y. Kawamura, and Y. Sawai.  1991.  A case of a defibrination syndrome due to Japanese colubrid snake, yamakagashi (Rhabdophis t. tigrinus) bite, treated with antivenom.  The Snake 23(1):36-39.  Report "not a severe case"; note yamakagashi a popular snake Japan, lives around paddy fields.

Cox, M. J.  1991.  The Snakes of Thailand and their Husbandry.  Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL, 526 pp.  Comments toxicity, aggressiveness colubrids region; reports "severe reaction" bite Boiga nigriceps - "pain...swelling...red blotches" thumb to arm, hospital care.

McCoid, M. J.  1991.  Brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam: a worst case scenario of an introduced predator.  Micronesica (Supplement 3):63-69.  Discusses diverse effects - biological, cultural, etc.; notes possible "anaphylactoid" nature bite reactions.

Monk, A. R.  1991.  A case of mild envenomation from a mangrove snake bite.  Litteratura Serpentium (European Snake Society) 11(1):21-23.  Reports local slight bleeding, discolouration; later fatigue, joint pain, slight fever, metallic taste, etc.; notes opinion hazard Boiga dendrophila varies widely.

Pinto, R. N. L., N. J. da Silva, Jr., and S. D. Aird.  1991.  Human envenomation by the South American opisthoglyph Clelia clelia plumbea (Wied).  Toxicon 29(12):1512-1516.  Report envenomation child - "prominent ecchymosis and edema...site...extremely sensitive...lymph nodes...enlarged," no systemic effects; Bothrops initially suspected, specific antivenom given.

Smeets, R. E. H., P. G. Melman, J.  J. M. L. Hoffmann, and A. W. Mulder.  1991.  Case report - severe coagulopathy after a bite from a 'harmless' snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus).  Journal of Internal Medicine 230(4):351-354.  Report bite pet snake - headache, vomiting, "prolonged bleeding diathesis...complete depletion fibrinogen...no evidence...severe organ damage, despite active intravascular coagulation"; discuss aspects coagulation.

Theakston, R. D. G. and D. A. Warrell.  1991.  Antivenoms: a list of hyperimmune sera currently available for the treatment of envenoming by bites and stings.  Toxicon 29(12):1419-1470.  Report availability "Boomslang antivenom," antidote 8; "Anti-Yamakagashi," antidote 112; provide relevant information.

Vest, D. K., S. P. Mackessy, and K. V. Kardong.  1991.  The unique Duvernoy's secretion of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis).  Toxicon 29(4/5):532-535.  Report secretion "remarkably simple...comparatively low toxicity...generally weak enzymatic activity"; i.v. LD50 mice 80 mg/kg, no neurotoxic effects noted.

Warrell, D. A.  1991.  Snakes, 103.5.  In G. T. Strickland (editor), Hunter's Tropical Medicine, 7th edition.  W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1153 pp.  Lists Dispholidus, Thelotornis, Rhabdophis as dangerous; appears to indicate Rhabdophis implicated most cases envenomation within this group.

Weinstein, S. A., D. Chiszar, R. C. Bell, and L. A. Smith.  1991.  Lethal potency and fractionation of Duvernoy's secretion from the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis.  Toxicon 29(4/5):401-407.  Report i.p. LD 50 crude secretion mice 10.33 mg/kg; isolation of lethal, myotoxic fractions; discuss clinical significance.

Zotz, R. B., D. Mebs, H. Hirche, and D. Paar.  1991.  Hemostatic changes due to the venom gland extract of the red-necked keelback snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus).  Toxicon 29(12):1501-1508.  Report: bite pet snake - "complete defibrinogenation syndrome with severe hemorrhagic diathesis"; in vitro venom activates prothrombin, additional findings; discuss mechanisms, recommend therapy.

Aitchison, J. M.  1990.  Boomslang bite - diagnosis and management.  A report of 2 cases.  South African Medical Journal 78(7 July):39-42.  Reports case histories two children bitten walking through scrub - delay onset effects, bleeding diathesis, efficiency specific antivenom, use thrombo-elastography in diagnosis and management.

Chifundera, K.  1990.  Snakes of Zaire and their bites.  African Study Monographs 10(3):137-157.  Reports epidemiology snakebite; lists Dispholidus, Thelotornis (dangerous but seldom bite), Polemon (no serious effects but commonly bite); notes 'study of antivenomous plants.'

De Silva, A.  1990.  Colour Guide to the Snakes of Sri Lanka.  R & A Publishing Ltd., Avon, England, 130 pp.  Lists Ahaetulla, Balanophis, Boiga, Cerberus, Chrysopelea, Gerarda of region "mildly venomous"; relates  myths, e.g. Boiga ceylonensis bite "will make the victim sleep."

De Silva, A.  1990.  Venomous snakes, their bites and treatment in Sri Lanka.  Pp. 479-556.  In P. Gopalakrishnakone and L. M. Chou (editors),  Snakes of Medical Importance (Asia-Pacific Region).  Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University of Singapore,  670 pp.  Includes Cerberus, Gerarda, Chrysopelea, Boiga, Balanophis, Ahaetulla (detailed reviews, bite accounts) - no "serious bites."

Fritts, T. H., M. J. McCoid, and R. L.  Haddock.  1990.  Risks to infants on Guam from bites of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis).  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 42(6):607-611.  Report variable occurrence "lethargy, diminished sensory perceptions, drooping eyelids," local (Fig. 2) "swelling, discoloration...bleb formation," also two cases "respiratory problems," possible anaphylactoid reaction mentioned; suspect snakes chewed victims.

Lim Boo Liat.  1990.  Venomous land snakes of Malaysia, Pp. 387-417.  In P. Gopalakrishnakone and L. M. Chou (editors), Snakes of Medical Importance (Asia-Pacific Region).  Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University of Singapore, 670 pp.  Writes Boiga dendrophila, Rhabdophis subminiatus "may be mildly venomous."

Minton, S. A.  1990.  Venomous bites by nonvenomous snakes: an annotated bibliography of colubrid envenomation.  Journal of Wilderness Medicine 1(2):119-127.  Reviews cases systemic, local envenomation for 1873-1988.

O'Shea, M. T.  1990.  The highly and potentially dangerous elapids of Papua New Guinea.  Pp. 585-640.  In P. Gopalakrishnakone and L. M. Chou (editors),  Snakes of Medical Importance (Asia - Pacific Region).  Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University of Singapore, 670 pp.  Notes that Australasian elapids Toxicocalamus, Unechis..."no more dangerous to man than...Neotropical Tantilla."

Seu, J.-H., A. Sakai, and Y. Sawai.  1990.  Effect of ISV (venom proteinase inhibitory substance) on the venom of Rhabdophis t. tigrinus (Japanese yamakagashi).  The Snake 22(2):93-99.  Report various activities of venom, e.g. proteinase, inhibited by extract Penicillium culture (ISV); speculate ISV a tool to elucidate pathogenesis envenomation.

Toriba, M. and Y. Sawai.  1990.  Venomous snakes of medical importance in Japan, Pp. 323-347.  In P. Gopalakrishnakone and L. M. Chou (editors), Snakes of Medical Importance (Asia-Pacific Region).  Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University of Singapore, 670 pp.  Review Rhabdophis tigrinus (listed venomous) - natural history, epidemiology bite cases, toxinology, antivenom, clinical aspects, toxicity nuchal gland secretion.

Zhao, E.  1990.  Venomous snakes of China.  Pp. 243-279.  In P. Gopalakrishnakone and L. M. Chou (editors),  Snakes of Medical Importance (Asia-Pacific Region).  Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University of Singapore, 670 pp.  Mentions opisthoglyphous snakes Boiga, Chrysopelea, Dryophis, Enhydris, Psammodynastes, Psammophis; indicates not dangerous, bites rare.

Adler, K.  1989.  Herpetologists of the past.  Pp. 5-142.  In K. Adler (editor), Contributions to the History of Herpetology, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, OH, 202 pp.  Notes death of Karl P. Schmidt (Dispholidus typus bite, 1957, "shunned medical treatment," recorded effects); death of Robert Mertens (Thelotornis bite, 1975, wrote 'a singularly appropriate end for a herpetologist').

Campbell, J. A. and W. W. Lamar.  1989.  The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America.  Cornell University Press, Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY, 425 pp.  Indicate no colubrid of region known lethal to humans, bite effects vary, toxic potential some species unknown; provide photo Philodryas olfersi bite; discuss mimicry.

Ernst, C. H. and R. W. Barbour.  1989.  Snakes of Eastern North America.  George Mason University Press, Fairfax, VA, 282 pp.  Comment on toxicity, or questioned toxicity, Farancia, Heterodon, Rhadinaea, Tantilla, Nerodia, Thamnophis; note senior author developed allergy to saliva T. sirtalis - "burning rash at the site."  

Greene, H. W.  1989.  Defensive behavior and feeding biology of the Asian mock viper, Psammodynastes pulverulentus (Colubridae), a specialized predator on scincid lizards.  Chinese Herpetological Research 2(2):21-32.  Reports "venom clearly affected...lizards...were limp and immobile," notes only brief bleeding from bite to finger, discusses role venom.

Kawamoto, F. and N. Kumada.  1989.  A case report of eye-injury caused by cervical gland venom of a snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus (Boie).  Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 40(3):211-212.  Report "massive epiphora...strong conjunctival injection...foreign body sensation...corneal opacity"; treated with irrigation, ointments; resolved by three days (from summary English).

Lim, F. L. K. and M. T.-M. Lee.  1989.  Fascinating Snakes of Southeast Asia - an Introduction.  Tropical Press Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 124 pp.  List Rhabdophis subminiatus non-venomous but note bite can "seriously injure," potent saliva; note "whitish discharge" neck glands Macropisthodon rhodomelas.

Nomura, T., T. Nagata, Y. Kawamura, and Y. Sawai.  1989.  A case of severe yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) bite treated by antivenom.  The Snake 21(2):85-86.  Report envenomation (hemorrhagic diathesis, prolonged clotting time) successfully treated with anti-yamakagashi goat-antivenom.

Reitz, C. J.  1989.  Boomslang bite - time of onset of clinical envenomation (letter to editor).  South African Medical Journal 76 (1 July):39-40.  Reports case with onset effects 15 hours after bite, successfully treated with antivenom, etc.; argues against Blaylock (1983) conclusion envenomation produces quick onset of effects.

Whistler, D. P. and J. W. Wright.  1989.  A late Miocene rear-fanged colubrid snake from California with comments on the phylogeny of North American snakes.  Herpetologica 45(3):350-367.  Report fossil, small rear-fanged snake, Proptychophis achoris sp. nov; speculate may have been arboreal, occupied pond-bank habitat.

Branch, B.  1988.  Bill Branch's Field Guide to the Snakes and other Reptiles of Southern Africa.  Ralph Curtis-Books-Publishing, Sanibel Island, FL, 328 pp.  In section Colubridae: lists Dispholidus, Thelotornis - human fatalities; notes certain species Amplorhinus, Psammophis, Macrelaps, Homoroselaps, Atractaspis capable significant envenomation.

Cox, M. J.  1988.  Serious effects from the bite of the red cat-eye snake, Boiga nigriceps.  The Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 23(10)162.  Reports unrelenting pain, swelling, red blotches extending to arm after prolonged bite; comments effects Boiga bites vary.

Gasperetti, J.  1988.  Snakes of Arabia.  Pp. 169-450.  In: W. Buttiken and F. Krupp (editors), Fauna of Saudi Arabia, Vol. 9, National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development, Riyadh, 477 pp.  Notes Malpolon moilensis, Psammophis schokari, Telescopus dhara poisonous, venom unknown potency; reports bite P. schokari lethal to lizard.

Jayne, B. C., H. K. Voris, and H. B. Heang.  1988.  Diet, feeding behavior, growth, and numbers of a population of Cerberus rynchops (Serpentes: Homalopsinae) in Malaysia.  Fieldiana: Zoology n.s., 50:1-15.  From observations feeding trials fish report "venom of C. rynchops appears capable of immobilizing and killing selected prey."

Johnson, J. D.  1988.  Comments on the report of envenomation by the colubrid snake Stenorrhina freminvillei.  Toxicon 26(6):519-521.  Writes snake reported by Cook (Toxicon, 1984) was probably Conophis lineatus; reports localized pain, swelling C. vittatus bite (photo included).

Kawamura, Y., Y. Sawai, M. Toriba, Y. Hokama, A. Sakai, T. Kouda, T. Kondo, M. Watanabe, M. Nozaki, and Y. Tomihara.  1988.  Study on the preparation of anti-yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) rabbit and goat antivenom.  The Snake 20(1):1-8.  Report antivenom blocks lethal, hemorrhagic, and coagulant activities of venom; suggest use to treat envenomation.

Kress, L. F.  1988.  The action of snake venom metalloproteinases on plasma proteinase inhibitors.  Pp 335-348.  In H. Pirkle and F. S. Markland, Jr. (editors), Hemostasis and Animal Venoms.  Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 628  pp.  Reports/reviews inhibition of human plasma proteinase inhibitor system by Dispholidus typus venom in vitro.

Perry, G.  1988.  Mild toxic effects resulting from the bites of Jan's desert racer, Coluber rhodorachis and Moila's snake, Malpolon moilensis (Ophidia: Colubridae).  Toxicon 26(6):523-524.  Reports C. rhodorachis bite - localized inflammation, edema, numbness, pain (diagnosed as infection?); M. moilensis bite - localized edema, numbness.

Rosing, J., R. F. A. Zwaal, and G. Tans.  1988.  Snake venom prothrombin activators. Chap. 1, Pp. 3-27.  In H. Pirkle and F. S. Markland, Jr. (editors), Hemostasis and Animal Venoms.  Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY, 628 pp.  Note (Table 2.) Echis carinatus, Dispholidus typus, Thelotornis kirtlandi capensis, Rhabdophis t. tigrinis venoms form group - no cofactor dependence for prothrombin activation.

Saddler, M. and B. Paul.  1988.  Vine snake envenomation.  Central African Journal of Medicine 34(2):31-33.  Report Thelotornis capensis oatesii bite - bleeding from cuts, bite wound; localized swelling; evidence of defibrination; treated with transfusions fresh plasma.

Vest, D. K.   1988.  Some effects and properties of Duvernoy's gland secretion from Hypsiglena torquata texana (Texas night snake).  Toxicon 26(4):417-419.  Reports s.c. LD 50 mice 26 mg/kg, severe local hemorrhage, edema; dry secretion 77% protein, seven fractions.

Warrell, D. A.  1988.  Injuries, envenoming, poisoning, and allergic reactions caused by animals.  Pp. 6.66 - 6.85.  In D. J. Weatherall, J. G. G. Ledingham, and D. A. Warrell (editors), Oxford Textbook of Medicine, Vol. 1, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1-12.282 pp + 1-114 pp index.  Writes "increasing number" (40+) colubrid species "capable of envenoming humans," urges caution; provides photo Rhabdophis teeth.

Yoshie, S., T. Ogawa, and T. Fujita.  1988.  Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of nerves in the Duvernoy's gland of the Japanese colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus.  Archives of Histology and Cytology 51(5):459-466.  Report visualization nerve fibers Duvernoy's gland, find evidence neurosecretory role.

Auerbach, R. D.  1987.  The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana.  Mokwepa Consultants (Pty) Ltd., Gaborone, Botswana, 295 pp.  Indicates evidence people southern Africa considered boomslang deadly prior to FitzSimons (1907) report while many colonists were foolhardy, considered boomslang harmless; provides additional information toxicity colubrids region.

Haagner, G. V. and R. Smit.  1987.  Case history of boomslang (Dispholidus typus) envenomation in the eastern Transvaal, South Africa.  British Herpetological Society Bulletin (21):43-45.  Report rapid onset with severe pain, headache, vomiting, bleeding, Prothrombin Index 0%; treatment included specific antivenom.

Jansen, D. W.  1987.  The myonecrotic effect of Duvernoy's gland secretion of the snake Thamnophis elegans vagrans.  Journal of Herpetology 21(1):81-83.  Reports rhabdomyodegeneration, necrosis, hemorrhagic damage, etc. in mice following intramuscular injection; relates findings to speculation evolution venoms.

Kikuchi, H., T. Takamura, M. Ishii, T. Ichihara, Y. Kawamura, and Y. Sawai.  1987.  Study on the effectiveness of the yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) antivenom.  The Snake 19(2):95-98.  Report two cases "severe bites" - hemorrhagic diathesis - successfully treated with rabbit antivenom; note antivenom still effective when given 11 - 16 hours after onset hemorrhage.

McNally, S. L. and C. J. Reitz.  1987.  Victims of snakebite: a 5-year study at Shongwe Hospital, Kangwane, 1978-1982.  South African Medical Journal 72(19 December):855-860.  Report of 254 cases snakebite Transvaal - boomslang, vine snake one case each, haemotoxic, treatment noted, both recovered.

Mebs, D., D. Parr, N. Graben, and U. Hassel.  1987.  Severe envenomation after a bite from Rhabdophis subminiatus.  Toxicon 25(4):372 (abstract).  Report "severe defibrination syndrome...blood was incoagulable...extensive hemorrhagic diathesis"; outline therapy - blood replacement, etc.

Minton, S. A.  1987.  Poisonous snakes and snakebite in the U. S.: a brief review.  Northwest Science 61(2) 130-137.  Discusses the "curious and not well understood phenomenon...of venomous bites by presumably nonvenomous snakes..."

Minton, S. A. and S. A. Weinstein.  1987.  Colubrid snake venoms: immunologic relationships, electrophoretic patterns.  Copeia (4):993-1000.  Report Duvernoy's secretions variety colubrids tested (immunodiffusion) against commercial antivenoms; note strong reactions against African, Australian elapid antivenoms.

Azuma, H., S. Sekizaki, T. Akizawa, T. Yasuhara, and T. Nakajima.  1986.  Activities of novel polyhydroxylated cardiotonic steroids purified from nuchal glands of the snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus.  Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 38(6):388-390.  Report some inhibition (Na+K+) ATPase, positive inotropic action; provide tentative chemical structures.

Branch, W. R.  1986.  Philothamnus natalensis natal green snake: venom.  Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 32(January):34.  Notes genus aglyphous, considered harmless; relates data Dennis Groves, P. Christensen 1962 - bite lethal to guinea pig; parotid gland secretion lethal to mice, clots blood in vitro.

Branch, W. R. and C.  J. McCartney.  1986.  Disphlidus typus boomslang: envenomation.  Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 32(January):34-35.  Report disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, slight headache, some localized bleeding by two hours; specific antivenom, etc. given; case complicated by hypersensitivity to antivenom.

Iddon, D. and R. D. G. Theakston.  1986.  Biological properties of the venom of the red-necked keel-back snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus).  Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 80(3):339-344.  Report strong Factor X activation; intense defibrinogenating activity; low to negligible proteolytic, fibrinogenolytic, fibrinolytic activity; weak neutralizing activity of one specific antivenom.

Kardong, K. V. and D. L. Luchtel.  1986.  Ultrastructure of Duvernoy's gland from the wandering garter snake, Thamnophis elegans vagrans (Serpents, Colubridae).  Journal of Morphology 188(1):1-13.  Conclude that differences in microstructure, mechanism secretion release, are evidence Duvernoy's gland "functionally distinct" from elapid/viperid venom glands, suggest a digestive role.

Kawamura, Y., A. Sakai, and Y. Sawai.  1986.  Studies on the pathogenesis of envenomation of the Japanese colubrid snake, yamakagashi, Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus (Boie).  3. Preparation of anti-yamakagashi antivenom.  The Snake 18(1):1-3.  Report enhanced neutralizing potency of antivenom (obtained from rabbits immunized with toxoid, assayed in mice).

Lowe, C. H., C. R. Schwalbe, and T. B. Johnson.  1986.  The Venomous Reptiles of Arizona.  Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ,  115 pp.  Write "rearfanged snakes...catch-bite-and-hold hunters," note Arizona species "not dangerous to man."

Nichols, A.  1986.  Envenomation by a bluestripe garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis similis.  Herpetological Review 17(1):6.  Reports localized edema, cyanosis, arthralgia, numbness, lymphadenitis axillary nodes from prolonged bite; discounts allergy, infection as factors.

Ogawa, H., Y. Ohmura, D. Ohhashi, I. Iritani, M. Kato, and Y. Machiki.  1986.  A case of death due to snake (Rhabdophis tigrinus) bite and a review of similar case reports in Japan.  Nihon Rinsho Geka Igakkai Zasshi  47(2):112-115.    (See Ogawa and Sawai (1986) for this report in English).  Note additional cases, Japan, hemorrhagic tendency (from summary English).

Ogawa, H. and Y. Sawai.  1986.  Fatal bite of the yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus).  The Snake 18(1?):53-54.  Report headache, localized swelling, hemorrhagic diathesis, respiratory arrest; include CT scan - cerebral hemorrhage; death by ten days; call for development specific antivenom.

Rosenberg, H., A. Bdolah, and E. Kochva.  1986.  Duvernoy's gland in colubrid snakes.  Pp. 641 - 644.  In Z. Rocek (editor), Studies in Herpetology, Prague, 754 pp.  Provide review - structure, function, phylogeny; suggest that "artificial labels," e.g. "mildly venomous," and excessive emphasis on clinical descriptions not helpful in understanding role of gland.

Wakamatsu, T., Y. Kawamura, and Y. Sawai.  1986.  A successful trial of yamakagashi antivenom.  The Snake 18(1):4-5.  Report case "severe poisoning" - hemorrhagic diathesis, coagulation abnormality; "recovered dramatically" after injection newly developed antivenom.

Akizaza, T., T. Yasuhara, H. Azuma, and T. Nakajima.  1985.  Chemical structures and biological activities of bufodienolides in the nucho-dorsal glands of Japanese snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus.  Proceedings of the 5th symposium on the development and application of naturally occurring drug materials, Hiroshima.  Journal of Pharmacobio-dynamics 8(3):S-60.  Report isolation cardiac steroids from nuchal glands but not from other tissues, provide chemical characterization, speculate defensive role.

Akizawa, T., T. Yasuhara, R. Kano, and T. Nakajima.  1985.  Novel polyhydroxylated cardiac steroids in the nuchal glands of the snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus.  Biomedical Research 6(6):437-441.  Report isolation, characterization, chemical structures; similar steroids from R. s. subminutes (unpublished); include color photograph nuchal glands; speculate defensive role.

Geddes, J. and J. E. P. Thomas.  1985.  Boomslang bite - a case report.  The Central African Journal of Medicine 31(6):109-112.  Report localized pain, bruising, bleeding, etc., disseminated intravascular coagulation; treatment with specific antivenom, etc.; note patient (snake handler) bitten on flat surface shoulder.

Gittenberger, E. and M. S. Hoogmoed.  1985.  Notizen zum christlichen Schlangenkult auf der ionischen Insel Kefallinia (Cephalonia).  Salamandra 21(1):90-94.  Report use of opistoglyphous "holy snakes" Telescopus fallax "not dangerous to man" in religious events on island Arginia (from abstract English).

Goodman, J. D.  1985.  Two record size Blanding's tree snakes from Uganda.  East Africa Natural History Society Bulletin - Nairobi (August - October):56-57.  Reports "slight amount of pain and smarting" from bite small specimen Boiga blandingii but strongly cautions against treating this species as harmless.

Hayes, W. K. and F. E. Hayes.  1985.  Human envenomation from the bite of the eastern garter snake, Thamnophis s. sirtalis (Serpentes: Colubridae).  Toxicon 23(4):719-721.  Report FEH hospitalized after prolonged bite Delaware - localized edema, ecchymosis, lymphadenitis, etc.; vital signs, lab tests normal; allergy, infection not implicated.

Marais, J.  1985.  Snake Versus Man: A Guide to Dangerous and Common Harmless Snakes of Southern Africa.  Macmillan South Africa, Ltd., Johannesburg, 102 pp.  In chapter back-fanged snakes lists Dispholidus, Thelotornis (also Atractaspis, Macrelaps) as dangerous; notes gape Dispholidus 170 degrees - "easily seize... an arm."

Morris, M. A.  1985.  Envenomation from the bite of Heterodon nasicus (Serpentes: Colubridae).  Herpetologica 41(3):361-363.  Reports bite (chewing) two minute duration - localized bleeding, pain, swelling, discoloration, itching, blisters, etc.

Newman, C. J.  1985.  Notes on the bite of the Montpelier snake.  The Vipera 1(8):35-39.  Reports Malpolon monspessulanus bite - localized bleeding, radiating pain, swelling, muscle spasms, slight nausea; notes this species makes chewing motions when annoyed.

Rosenberg, H. I., A. Bdolah, and E. Kochva.  1985.  Lethal factors and enzymes in the secretion from Duvernoy's gland of three colubrid snakes.  The Journal of Experimental Zoology 233(1):5-14.  Report Malpolon, Spalerosophis far more toxic than Thamnophis; describe use pilocarpine in collection secretions; provide detailed discussion, literature review.

Stebbins, R. C.  1985.  A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians.  Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA, 336 pp.  Comments on "venom(ous)" aspects Diadophis, Tantilla, Oxybelis, Trimorphodon, Hypsiglena, Eridiphas; notes Oxybelis bite - localized numbness for 12 hours. 

Cable, D., W. McGehee, W. A. Wingert, and F. E. Russell.  1984.  Prolonged defibrination after a bite from a 'nonvenomous' snake.  Journal of the American Medical Association 251(7):925-926.  Report bite Rhabdophis subminatus ("harmless snake," California pet store) - severe headache,vomiting, severe coagulopathy, hemorrhage; discuss therapy; note quick strikes if prey odor detected.

Cook, D. G.  1984.  A case of envenomation by the neotropical colubrid snake, Stenorrhina freminvillei.  Toxicon 22(5):823-827.  Reports localized pain, bleeding, swelling, numbness from prolonged bite.

De Lisle, H. F.  1984.  Boiga cyanea (green cat-eye snake) envenomation.  Herpetological Review 15(4):112.  Reports "conspecific envenomation" - a specimen bitten by cage-mate became lethargic and died. 

Harding, K. A.  1984.  A brief review of colubrid snakebite.  Association for the Study of Reptilia and Amphibia (ASRA) Journal 2(3):65-72.  Summarizes reports colubrid snakebite, categorizes these by medical importance; concludes cases poisoning extremely rare; questions evidence of poisoning in some reports.

Kunkel, D. B.  1984.  Bites of venomous reptiles.  Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 2(3):563-577.  Provides brief mention 'hindfang' snakes U.S.A. - Hypsiglena, Trimorphodon, Oxybelis; brief mention Thamnophis bites.

Russell, F. E.  1984.  Snake venoms.  Symposium, The Zoological Society of London (52):469-480.  Briefly mentions toxicity colubrids; Rhabdophis, Dispholidus, Thelotornis included; notes saliva Rhabdophis higher lethal index than some rattlesnake venoms.

Sakai, A., M. Honma, and Y. Sawai.  1984.  Study on the toxicity of venoms extracted from Duvernoy's gland of certain Asian colubrid snakes.  The Snake 16(1):16-20.  Report on Rhabdophis, Enhydris, Homalopsis, Boiga species: Rhabdophis venom - lowest LD 50, strongest coagulant activity; all venoms - some degree histopathology mice.

Sakai, A. and Y. Sawai.  1984.  Studies on the pathogenesis of envenomation of yamakagashi, Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus (Boie) 2.  Immunogenicity of the venom.  The Snake 16 (1):21-26.  Report R. t. tigrinus antivenom neutralized various toxic constituents R. t. tigrinus, R. s. subminiatus venom; Echis carinatus antivenom neutralized lethal toxicity R. t. tigrinus venom.

Tennant, A.  1984.  The Snakes of Texas.  Texas Monthly Press, Austin, TX, 561 pp.  Reports bites Leptodeira, Coniophanes, Drymobius; considers excessive bleeding bite punctures significant.

Kunkel, D. B., S. C. Curry, M. V. Vance, and P. J. Ryan.  1983-84.  Reptile envenomations.  Journal of Toxicology.  Clinical Toxicology 21(4+5) 503-526.  Include brief review toxic colubrids; note recent reports toxic bites from "harmless" colubrids.

Blaylock, R. S.  1983.  Time of onset of clinical envenomation following snakebite.  South African Medical Journal 64(10):357-360.  From published case histories snakebite Dispholidus, Thelotornis concludes "symptomatic envenomation...takes place within one hour with physical signs of envenomation occurring later."

Buys, P. J. and P. J. C. Buys.  1983.  Snakes of South West Africa.  Gamsberg Publishers, Windhoek, 64 pp.  Write bite Psammophis, Psammophylax possibly lethal young, old, infirm; provide excellent color photo (P. 47) Dispholidus, multiple fangs under eye, give first one or two words?? aid guidelines.  

Chippaux, J. P. and M. Goyffon.  1983.  Producers of antivenomous sera.  Toxicon 21(6):739-752.  Dispholidus typus antivenom not included in list from South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg.

Daniel, J. C.  1983.  The Book of Indian Reptiles.  Oxford University Press, Bombay, 141 pp.  Notes Ahaetulla nasutus bite may cause local swelling and numbness; mentions poison similar to that of cobra in regard symptoms produced.

De Silva, A. and D. J. Aloysius.  1983.  Moderately and mildly venomous snakes of Sri Lanka.  Ceylon Medical Journal 28(3):118-127.  Report Boiga, Ahaetulla bites mild effects; Chrysopelea bites no reactions; Rhabdophis ceylonesis bite localized pain, inflammation, also headache; toxicity Cerberus to humans uncertain.

Ferlan, I., A. Ferlan, T. King, and F. E. Russell.  1983.  Preliminary studies on the venom of the colubrid snake Rhabdophis subminatus (red-necked keelback).  Toxicon 21(4):570-574.  Describe milking technique (micropipette), include photograph; report i.v. LD 50 mice 1.29 mg/kg, fractions isolated, enzymatic activity determined, no thrombin-like activity detected.

Jansen, D. W.  1983.  A possible function of the secretion of Duvernoy's gland.  Copeia (1):262-264.  Reports secretion Thamnophis elegans vagrans inhibited growth (in vitro) oral bacteria from this species; speculates on significance.

Jansen, D. W. and R. C. Foehring.  1983.  The mechanism of venom secretion from Duvernoy's gland of the snake Thamnophis sirtalis.  Journal of Morphology 175(3):271-277.  Report adductor musculature not directly connected to Duvernoy's gland however find stimulation this musculature increases secretion release. 

Kochva, E., O. Nakar, and M. Ovadia.  1983.  Venom toxins: plausible evolution from digestive enzymes.  American Zoologist 23(2):427-430.  Mention Duvernoy's gland enzyme (phospholipase A) regarding speculation co-evolution snake venoms and pancreatic enzymes.

McKinstry, D. M.  1983.  Morphologic evidence of toxic saliva in colubrid snakes: a checklist of world genera.  Herpetological Review 14(1):12-15.  Provides checklist based on presence Duvernoy's gland, presence enlarged rear maxillary teeth either grooved or solid; correction to Table 5. - omit "Duvernoy's" from heading third column.

Mori, K., S. Hisa, S. Suzuki, K. Sugai, H. Sakai, T. Kikuchi, N. Hiwatashi, H. Shishido, and Y. Goto.  1983.  A case of severe defibrination syndrome due to snake (Rhabdophis tigrinus) bite.  The Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology 24(3):256-262.  Report "severe hemorrhagic diathesis and oliguria," disseminated intravascular coagulation, chronic renal failure; envenomation treated with exchange blood transfusion (from abstract English).

Nussbaum, R. A., E. D. Brodie, Jr., and R. M. Storm.  1983.  Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest.  The University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 332 pp.  Report Hypsiglena torquata bite lethal to lizard.

Sakai, A., M. Honma, and Y. Sawai.  1983.  Studies on the pathogenesis of envenomation of the Japanese colubrid snake, yamakagashi, Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus (Boie).  1. Study on the toxicity of the venom.  The Snake 15(1): 7-13.  Report LD 50 determinations mice, highest toxicity i.v. route, hemorrhage most characteristic lesion; venom coagulant activity in vitro (prothrombin activation); discuss pathogenesis.

Theakston, R. D. G. and H. A. Reid.  1983.  Development of simple standard assay procedures for the characterization of snake venoms.  Bulletin of the World Health Organization 61(6):949-956.  Provide standardized methods for assay six properties venoms (per WHO recommendation); report results 30 species medical importance, Rhabdophis subminiatus only colubrid included.

Tweedie, M. W. F.  1983.  The Snakes of Malaya, 3rd edition.  Singapore National Printers (Pte) Ltd., Singapore, 167 pp.  Notes bites back-fanged snakes Malaya relatively benign; saliva Natricinae, especially Rhabdophis subminiatus, "to some degree toxic".

Becker, J.  H. R., B. Jacobson, and R. C. Franz.  1982.  146.  Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) coagulopathy with special reference to thrombelastography (abstract).  Langenbecks Archiv fèur Chirurgie 357:220-221.  Conclude from study envenomated baboons thrombocytopenia not "typical feature"; ristocetin test, thrombelastography useful; platelet function seems maintained; antivenin "effective despite advanced consumption."

Blaylock, R. S. M.  1982.  Snake bites at Triangle Hospital January 1975 to June 1981.  The Central African Journal of Medicine 28(1):1-11.  Reports two cases Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia "minimal local pain," out of 250 cases "South East lowveld of Zimbabwe."

Coetzer, P. W. W. and C. R. Tilbury.  1982.  The epidemiology of snakebite in northern Natal.  South African Medical Journal 62(7 August):206-212.  Note Dispholidus, Thelotornis "potentially lethal" but bite cases Natal rare.

De Lisle, H. F.  1982.  Venomous colubrid snakes.  Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 17(1):1-17.  Provides detailed review, includes information venom apparatus, toxicity, accounts of human envenomations, speculation, public health considerations.

González, D.  1982.  Epidemiological and clinical aspects of certain venomous animals of Spain.  Toxicon 20(5):925-928.  Reports bites Malpolon monspessulanus occasionally produce envenomation - "spreading oedema, local para-aesthesia...lymphangitis," etc. common, less frequently varying "symptoms of neurotoxicity."

Gorzula, S.  1982.  Leptodeira annulata ashmeadii (n.c.n.).  envenomation.  Herpetological Review 13(2):47.  Reports localized swelling, sensitivity; notes this snake "generally regarded as--harmless."

Harris, J. B.  1982.  Toxic constituents of animal venoms and poisons.  1. Incidence of poisoning, clinical and experimental studies, and reptile venoms.  Adverse Drug Reactions and Acute Poisonings Reviews 1(1):65-92.  Provides brief review "venoms of the Colubridae"; recommends comparative studies coagulant effect toxins Colubridae, Viperidae, Crotalidae.

Kardong, K. V.  1982.  The evolution of the venom apparatus in snakes from colubrids to viperids and elapids.  Memórias do Instituto de Butantan (issue 46):105-118.  In extensive discussion questions if term venom (implying function, e.g. to kill prey) is correct label for toxic (denoting lethal property of substance) Duvernoy's gland secretions most colubrids.

Parker, F.  1982.  The Snakes of Western Province.  Wildlife in Papua New Guinea No. 82/1.  Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Konedobu, Papua New Guinea, 78 pp.  Reports enigma - possibility rare undescribed water snake, southern part Western Province, bite "very rapidly fatal...within minutes"; in unrelated section indicates Boiga irregularis bite "like a wasp sting."

Simbotwe, M. P.  1982.  Epidemiology and clinical study of snakebite in Kasempa District of northwestern Zambia.  The Snake 14(2):101-104.  Reports several cases snakebite Psammophis - "local symptoms were mild."

Simbotwe, M. P.  1982.  Survey of snakebite in Zambia.  Zambia Museums Journal 6:88-99.  Reports few cases colubrid snakebite: Thelotornis - intense swelling, internal bleeding; Dispholidus - severe internal bleeding; Psammophis, Crotaphopeltis - "local wounding only."

Smith, R. L.  1982.  Venomous Animals of Arizona.  The Arizona Board of Regents, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 134 pp.  Notes of "hindfang" snakes Arizona (Hypsiglena, Trimorphodon, Oxybelis) - venom low toxicity, bites rare, should disinfect, etc., consult physician (not urgent).

Trestrail, J. H.  1982.  The "underground zoo" - the problem of exotic venomous snakes in private possession in the United State. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 24 (supplement):144-149.  Reports inebriated amateur collector hospitalized San Francisco, CA after Boiga dendrophila bite.

Yoshie, S., M. Ishiyama, and T. Ogawa.  1982.  Fine structure of Duvernoy's gland of the Japanese colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus.  Archivum Histologicum Japonicum 45(4);375-384.  Suggest secretory granules contain "single substance such as glycoprotein," released by exocytosis; describe autonomic inneruation myoepithelial cells; note possibility neurosecretion.

Atkinson, P. M., M. Rebello, M. C. Gaillard, and B. A. Bradlow.  1981.  The role of heparin therapy in Dispholidus typus envenomation: an experimental study.  Thrombosis Research 23(4/5):355-363.  Confirm heparin resistance of venom but mechanism uncertain, note heparin may only delay disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Branch, W. R.  1981.  Venomous snakes of southern Africa, 3. concluding part: Colubridae.  Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 17(4):125-150.  Provides comprehensive account, indicates bites range "from inconvenient to deadly," questions FitzSimons conclusion early 1900s Psammophylax 'more poisonous than...cobra or mamba.'

Christensen, P. A.  1981.  Snakebite and the use of antivenom in southern Africa.  South African Medical Journal 59 (20 June):934-938.  Reports survey snakebite 1953-1979; 0.5% of cases attributed to back-fanged species including Dispholidus, Thelotornis, Psammophylax, etc.; no serious effects reported.

Fuller, S. R.  1981.  A case of envenomation by a western hognose snake, Heterodon n. nasicus.  Notes from Noah (Northern Ohio Association of Herpetologists) 9(1):11.  Reports localized swelling, burning sensation, itching, numbness after chewed while feeding specimen.

Greene, H. W. and R. W. McDiarmid.  1981.  Coral snake mimicry: does it occur?  Science 213(4513):1207-1212.  Support idea several harmless or mildly toxic colubrids are mimics of coral snakes, argue against using concept Mullerian mimicry to understand this interaction.

Haast, W. E. and R. Anderson.  1981.  Complete Guide to Snakes of Florida.  The Phoenix Publishing Co., Inc., Miami, FL, 139 pp.  Group Tantilla with Crotalus adamanteus, etc. as poisonous snakes Florida however indicate Tantilla not dangerous to humans, venom neurotoxic to prey.

Meier, J.  1981.  The fangs of Dispholidus typus Smith and Thelotornis kirtlandii Smith (Serpentes: Colubridae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie  88(4):897-902.  Describes fang structure Dispholidus, Thelotornis - "deep venom grove" aligned with "blade-like ridge...mesial apex," suggests alignment makes venom injection easier.

Phelps, T.  1981.  Poisonous Snakes.  Blandford Press Ltd. Poole, Dorset, 237 pp.  Discusses variety rear-fanged colubrids; notes saliva some non-venomous species, e.g. Natrix, Thamnophis, "said to have a paralyzing effect on prey."

Vest, D. K. 1981.  Envenomation following the bite of a wandering garter snake (Thamnophis elegans vagrans).  Clinical Toxicology 18(5):573-579.  Reports prolonged bite, child - localized bleeding, swelling (rapid onset), edema, pain, ecchymosis (includes drawing, photo of signs).

Vest, D. K.  1981.  The toxic Duvernoy's secretion of the wandering garter snake, Thamnophis elegans vagrans.  Toxicon 19(6):831-839.  Reports i.p. LD 50 mice 13.85 mg/kg, "massive pulmonary hemorrhage," etc. observed; other oral secretions no significant effects; describes micro-aspiration technique collection secretion.

World Health Organization.  1981.  Progress in the characterization of venoms and standardization of antivenoms.  WHO offset publication no. 58, World Health Organization, Geneva, 44 pp.  Lists Dispholidus, Thelotornis as medically important, bites uncommon, can be lethal; notes availability Dispholidus antivenom.

Atkinson, P. M., B. A. Bradlow, J. A. M. White, H. B. W. Greig, and M. C. Gaillard.  1980.  Clinical features of twig snake (Thelotornis capensis) envenomation.  South African Medical Journal 58(20 December): 1007-1011.  Report disseminated intravascular coagulation, etc. but no bleeding, plasma transfusion; isolation coagulant enzyme from venom - activates prothrombin, Factor X; venom not blocked by boomslang antivenom; discuss therapy.

Bajaj, A., B. Bisseru, and H. J. Powar.  1980.  Snake bite.  Medical Journal of Zambia 14(6):109-112.  Report presumed case Dispholidus typus envenomation - pain, bleeding, headache, haematuria, etc.; treatment included poly-specific antivenom, boomslang antivenom not available.

Bradlow, B. A., P. M. Atkinson, E. D. Gomperts, and M. C. Gaillard.  1980.  Studies on the coagulant effects of boomslang (Dispholidus typus) venom.  Clinical and Laboratory Haematology 2(2):317-331.  From detailed study report coagulation effect primarily due to activation prothrombin; activation prethrombin, factor X, possibly factor IX also noted.

Du Toit, D. M.  1980.  Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) bite - a case report and a review of diagnosis and management.  South African Medical Journal 57(29 March):507-510.  Reports snakebite case (boomslang strongly implicated) - diffuse intravascular clotting, haemorrhage, unconsciousness, etc., rapid response to boomslang antivenom; provides detailed discussion, recommendations.

Gerber, J. D. W. and H. P. F. Adendorff.  1980.  Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) - Byt 'n Gevalbespreking.  South African Medical Journal 57 (26 April):710-711.  Report bite case - "serious haemorrhage," treated with specific boomslang antiserum, transfusion, etc. (from summary English).  

Harding, K. A. and K. R. G. Welch.  1980.  Venomous Snakes of the World - a Checklist.  Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, NY, 188 pp.  Include in part 1. Family Colubridae - Balanophis, Rhabdophis, Dispholidus, Thelotornis, Atractaspis.

Jaume, M. L. and O. H. Garrido.  1980.  Notes on Alsophis cantherigerus Bibron (Reptilia - Serpentes Colubridae) bites in Cuba.  Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical 32(May-August):145-148.  Report two bite cases 'jubo' - "bothersome lesions...result of the enzymatic content...saliva"; note similar lesions from bites other Alsophis species Antilles; provide bibliography 1838 - 1978 (from summary English).

Mandell, F., J. Bates, M. B. Mittleman, and J. W. Loy.  1980.  Major coagulopathy and "nonpoisonous" snake bites.  Pediatrics 65(2):314-317.  Report "two florid examples of disseminated coagulopathy," Japan: "aodaisho snake" implicated first case, Rhabdophis tigrinus second case, both snakes described as rear-fanged; hospital course both cases described.

Minton, S. A., Jr. and M. R. Minton.  1980.  Venomous Reptiles - revised edition.  Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY, 308 pp.  Include sections titled "Venomous Colubrids," "Venomous Bites by Nonvenomous snakes"; report localized swelling following bite Leptophis ahaetulla, an "aglyphous colubrid."

Oehme, F. W., J. F. Brown, and M. E. Fowler.  1980.  Toxins of animal origin.  Pp. 557-577.  In J. Doull , C. D. Klaassen, and M. O. Amdur (editors), Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 2nd edition, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY, 778 pp.  Include paragraph on Colubridae; mention Dispholidus typus ("extremely venomous"), Boiga dendrophila, Trimorphodon vandenburghi (curiously both of the United States).

Parrish, H. M.  1980.  Poisonous Snakebites in the United States.  Vantage Press, New York, NY, 469 pp.  Relates (from reprint Parrish et al., 1973, Southern Medical Journal) localized effects native Natrix, Coluber bites to volunteers - slight pain, oozing blood (longer than expected), itching and tingling less commonly.

Russell, F. E.  1980.  Snake Venom Poisoning.  J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA, 562 pp.  Notes 'venomousness' of some snakes unresolved; attributes some bite 'reactions' to foreign body reactions, infection, allergy, psychosomatic responses, etc., other to poisoning.

Seib, R. L.  1980.  Human envenomation from the bite of an aglyphous false coral snake, Pliocercus elapoides (Serpentes: Colubridae).  Toxicon 18(3):399-401.  Reports severe localized pain, swelling, ecchymosis, blackening, swelling axillary lymph nodes, etc. from bite one second duration; admitted to hospital, given Crotalus antivenine, etc.

Vitt, L. J.  1980.  Ecological observations on sympatric Philodryas (Colubridae) in northeastern Brazil.  Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, S. Paulo. 34(5):87-98.  Reports field observation P. nattereri - "coils were used to hold the lizard, apparently until the venom took effect."

Atkinson, P. M., M. C. Kew, A. Sayed, and B. A. Bradlow.  1979.  The use of Dispholidus typus venom in elucidating the cause of a low prothrombin index.  Clinical and Laboratory Haematology 1():281-290.  Review coagulant action D. typus, Echis carinatus venom common pathway; report test to determine prothrombin precursor in patients on vitamin K

Boquet, P.  1979.  Immunological properties of snake venoms.  Chap. 19, Pp. 751-824.  In: C.Y. Lee (editor)  Snake Venoms - Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 52, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1130 pp.  Briefly reviews research immunologic cross reactions colubrid salivary secretions.

Gonzales, D.  1979. Injuries through Malpolon monspessulanus (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae).  Salamandra 15(4):266-268.  Reports envenomation (ten cases) localized edema, paresthesia, also lymphangitis common; one "severe case" ptosis, difficulties in swallowing, respiration (from summary English).

Hiestand, P.C. and R.R. Hiestand.  1979.  Dispholidus typus (boomslang) snake venom: purification and properties of the coagulant principle.  Toxicon 17(5):489-498.  Report fractionation of venom, isolation of glycoprotein which strongly coagulates plasma.

Maretic´, Z. and F.E. Russell.  1979.  An unusual nonvenomous snake bite.  Toxicon 17(4):425-427.  Report bite from "probably Elaphe longissima" - man jumped, injured leg, no evidence of a toxic reaction.

Minton, S.A., Jr. 1979.  Beware: nonpoisonous snakes.  Clinical Toxicology 15(3):259-265.  Provides reprint of article Natural History Magazine (November 1978), includes bibliography colubrid envenomations.

Minton, S.A., Jr.  1979.  Common antigens in snake venoms.  Chap. 21, Pp. 847-862.  In: C.Y. Lee (editor) Snake Venoms - Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 52, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1130 pp.  Reports cross reactions between Dispholidus typus antivenom and, most notably, viperid venoms; speculates viperid venoms perhaps evolved from colubrid venoms.

Minton, S.A.  1979.  Letter to the editor.  Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 14(1+2):2.  Writes an effective response to L. Franklin's comments (see below) regarding Minton article toxic colubrids (Natural History Magazine, November 1978).

Romer, J.D.  1979.  The red-necked keelback - a venomous snake of Hong Kong.  Urban Council, Hong Kong (a pamphlet).  Warns residents Hong Kong Rhabdophis subminiatus recently discovered to be highly venomous.

Rothschild, A.M. and Z. Rothschild.  1979.  Liberation of pharmacologically active substances by snake venoms.  Chap. 16, Pp. 591-628.  In: C.Y. Lee (editor) Snake Venoms - Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 52, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1130 pp.  In review on "indirect effects of snake venoms" notes (from Mebs 1968, 1970) Leptodeira annulata venom lacks kinin-forming activity. 

Spawls, S.  1979.  Sun, Sand and Snakes.  William Morrow and Company, New York, NY, 254 pp, 8 plates.  Discusses bite cases Dispholidus, Psammophis, Crotaphopeltis, Boiga blandingii Kenya; speculates B. blandingii "potentially deadly".

Theakston, R. D. G., H. A. Reid, and J. D. Romer.  1979.  Biological properties of the red-neck reel-back snake (Rhabdophis subminiatun).  Toxicon 17 (suppl. 1): 190.  Report LD50 venom i.v. 130 mg/20 g mouse; low proteolytic activity; absence fibrinolytic, fibrinogenolytic activity; moderate haemorrhagic activity; strong defibrinating activity; no protection from various commercial antisera.

Underwood, G.  1979.  Classification and Distribution of Venomous Snakes in the World.  Chap. 2, Pp. 15-40, In: C.Y. Lee (editor) Snake Venoms - Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 52, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,  1130 pp.  Notes some aglyphs are related to opisthoglyphs and thus may also be venomous.

Visser, J.  1979.  Common Snakes of South Africa.  Purnell and Sons, Ltd., Cape Town, xxvi + 74 pp.  Indicates bites Dispholidus, Thelotornis dangerous but "extremely rare"; notes several other back-fanged snakes of region relatively harmless to humans.

Wright, D.L., K.V. Kardong, and D.L. Bentley.  1979.  The functional anatomy of the teeth of the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans.  Herpetologica 35(3):223-228.  Report rear maxillary teeth enlarged, have cutting edge; speculate may facilitate flow (possibly toxic) saliva into prey.

Franklin, L.  1978.  Bitten by a parrot snake, and I lived.  Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 13(4):91-92.  Questions use of sensational photo, etc.  Minton article Natural History Magazine (November 1978); reports stinging sensation Leptophis bites.

Gay, T.  1978.  Notes on the green keelback snake (Macropisthodon plumbicolor).  Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 75(3):854-859.  Reports bite (chewing action) produced localized pain and bleeding.

Goin, C.J., O.B. Goin, and G.R. Zug.  1978.  Introduction to Herpetology (third edition).  W.H. Freeman Co., San Francisco, 378 pp.  Note rear-fanged snakes use venom to aid ingestion, digestion of prey; indicate Dispholidus, Thelotornis dangerous.

Guillin, M., A. Bezeaud, and D. Menache.  1978.  The mechanism of activation of human prothrombin by an activator isolated from Dispholidus typus venom.  Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 537(1):160-168.  Report Dispholidus typus, Echis carinatus venoms use similar mechanism to activate prothrombin. 

Kornalik, F. and E. Taborska.  1978.  Procoagulant and defibrinating potency of the venom gland extract of Thelotornis kirtlandi.  Thrombosis Research 12(6):991-1001.  Report venom "direct prothrombin converting activity," "defibrinating potency in vivo;" discuss pathogenesis envenomation.

Kornalik, F., E. Taborska, and D. Mebs.  1978.  Pharmacological and biochemical properties of a venom gland extract from the snake Thelotornis kirtlandi.  Toxicon 16(6):535-542.  Report conversion prothrombin to thrombin, "strong defibrinating" capacity in vivo, LD 50 mice 0.25 mg/kg, haemorrhagic activity, etc.  

Kress, L. F. and E. A. Paroski.  1978.  Enzymatic inactivation of human serum proteinase inhibitors by snake venom proteinases.  Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 83(2):649-656.  Report proteinases from crotalids, viperids, colubrids (Dispholidus typus); not from elapids, hydrophids.

Mather, H.M., S. Mayne, and T.M. McMonagle.  1978.  Severe envenomation from "harmless" pet snake.  British Medical Journal May 20; 1(6123) 1324-1325.  Report Rhabdophis subminiatus bite - bleeding diathesis, depletion clotting factors, etc. relieved by replacement therapy.

McKinstry, D.M.  1978.  Review: Evidence of toxic saliva in some colubrid snakes of the United States.  Toxicon 16(6)523-534.  Discusses ten native genera, finds substantial evidence toxic saliva in five.

Mebs, D., I. Scharrer, W. Stille, and H. Hauk.  1978.  A fatal case of snake bite due to Thelotornis kirtlandii.  Pp.  477-479, In: P. Rosenberg (editor).  Toxins: Animal, Plant and Microbial.  Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1134 pp.  Report death of "well known herpetologist" - consumption coagulopathy, hemorrhage, renal failure; note "thrombin-like enzyme" of venom.

Minton, S.A., Jr.  1978.  Beware: nonpoisonous snakes.  Natural History 87(9):56-61.  Provides detailed account, in popular press, on toxic colubrid snakebite.

Minton, S.A. and W.A. Dunson.  1978.  Observations on the Palawan mangrove snake, Boiga dendrophila multicincta (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae).  Journal of Herpetology 12(1):107-108.  Report no evidence envenomation from defensive bites, relate two cases slight envenomation.

Minton, S.A. and D. Mebs.  1978.  Four cases of bites by colubrids (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae).  Salamandra 14(1):41-43.  Report bite effects Coniophanes, Leptophis, Cyclagras (localized pain and swelling or redness); review toxicity Rhabdophis; note case allergy to colubrid, (e.g. Elaphe) saliva.

Mittleman, M.B. and R.C. Goris.  1978.  Death caused by the bite of the Japanese colubrid snake Rhabdophis tigrinus (Boie) (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae).  Journal of Herpetology 12(1):109-111.  Relate from translation Nakayama, et al. (1973) Japanese Journal Nephrology - hemmorhage, anuria, etc., renal failure; discuss aspects envenomation.

Pough, F.H., G. Kwiecinski, and W. Bemis.  1978.  Melanin deposits associated with the venom glands of snakes.  Journal of Morphology 155(1)63-72.  Report melanin deposits over venom glands including those some colubrids, suggest protect venom from light.

Visser, J. and D. S. Chapman.  1978.  Snakes and Snakebite - Venomous Snakes and Management of Snakebite in Southern Africa.  Purnell and Sons, Cape Town, South Africa, 152 pp.  Discuss back-fanged snakes region, include two case histories bites; report in series 1500 bites "only five bites by back-fanged species and none produced serious effects."

Whitaker, R.  1978.  Common Indian Snakes.  The Macmillan Company of India Limited, Delhi, 154 pp.  Notes Chrysopelea ornata, Ahaetulla nasutus, Boiga trigonata, Cerberus rhynchops harmless to humans.

Fischer, H.M.  1977.  Rear-fanged snakes.  Zooview (GLAZA) 11(3):12-13.  Provides brief account, includes photograph Dispholidus typus skull with fang.

 Gomperts, E.D. and D. Demetriou.  1977.  Laboratory studies and clinical features in a case of boomslang envenomation.  South African Medical Journal 51(6):173-175.  Report headache, nausea, bleeding, "severe coagulative defects," etc., treated with antivenom, etc. 

Linder, A.D. and E. Fichter.  1977.  The Amphibians and Reptiles of Idaho.  Idaho State University Press, Pocatello Falls, ID.  78 pp.  Discuss toxicity Hypsiglena torquata - bite "paralyzing action" on prey, "not dangerous to man."

Mamonov, G.  1977.  Case report of envenomation by the mountain racer Coluber ravergieri in USSR.  The Snake 9(1):27-28.  Reports localized bleeding, edema, discoloration, pain; this information from personal experience and published reports of Ishunin (1950), Darevsky (1969).  

Mebs, D.  1977.  Bite injuries from "non-poisonous" snakes.  Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 102(40):1429-1431.  Provides review toxicity colubrids, includes 14 genera, indicates bites Rhabdophis, Dispholidus, Thelotornis dangerous - can result in hemorrhage.

Philpot, V.B., Jr., E. Ezekiel, R.G. Yaeger, C.G. Jackson, Jr., and R.L. Stjernholm.  1977.  Lethal action of saliva from non-venomous snakes.  Proceedings Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 36(3):1053. (abstract) Report parotid extract Natrix toxic to mice; salivary extracts Lampropeltis, etc.  harmless; note neutralizing action of snake sera on Natrix salivary protease.

Tu, A.T.  1977.  Venoms: Chemistry and Molecular Biology.  John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 560 pp.  Provides chapter "Colubridae venoms"; includes Dispholidus, Thelotornis in list poisonous snakes (appendix).

Cooper, J.E. and H.A. Reid.  1976.  Ionides and snake bite.  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 70(3):264-265.  Relate from notebooks C.J.P. Ionides three personal incidents Dispholidus typus bite, no treatment.

De Silva, A.  1976.  Venomous snakes of Sri Lanka.  The Snake 8( ):31-42.  Includes Boiga, Ahaetulla; notes bites several species Boiga produce localized swelling.

Kroll, J.C.  1976.  Feeding adaptations of hognose snakes.  The Southwestern Naturalist 20(4):537-557.  Discusses cranial anatomy, toxicity Heterodon; reports: bite - pain, edema; salivary extract lethal to lizards.

Levinson, S.R., M.H. Evans, and F. Groves.  1976.  A neurotoxic component of the venom from Blanding's tree snake (Boiga blandingi).  Toxicon 14(4):307-312.  Report venom LD 50 for mice, speculate venom component(s) inhibit neuromuscular junction (in vitro, frog) via action on acetylcholine receptors.

Mamonov, V.G.  1976.  Poisoning resulting from the bite of the "non-poisonous" adder (Coluber ravergieri) in UdSSR.  Die Aquarien-und Terrarien Zeitschrift 29:249-250.  See Mamonov (1977) this bibliography.

Nickerson, M.A. and R.W. Henderson.  1976.  A case of envenomation by the South American colubrid, Philodryas olfersi.  Herpetologica 32(2):197-198.  Report localized swelling, sensitivity; enlargement, pain axillary lymph nodes.

Rippey, J.J., E. Rippey, and W.R. Branch.  1976.  A survey of snakebite in the Johannesburg area.  South African Medical Journal 50(30 October):1872-1876.  Include bites Dispholidus (bleeding or bruising, etc.); Pseudaspis, Psammophis?("local wounding only").

Schaefer, N.  1976.  The mechanism of venom transfer from the venom duct to the fang in snakes.  Herpetologica 32(1):71-76.  Suspects "positive transference" of venom in eight boiginid genera studied.

Boos, H.  1975.  Report on the effect of the venom of the colubrid snake the 'ratonel' Pseudoboa neuwiedii.  Journal of the Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalist' Club  :28-30.  Reports bite apparently lethal to cat, provides further information toxicity colubrids of area.

Broadley, D.G. and E.V. Cock.  1975.  Snakes of Rhodesia.  Longman Rhodesia, Ltd., Salisbury, 152 pp.  Note Dispholidus and Thelotornis dangerous, severe headache early symptom poisoning, ingestion venom may be harmful; discuss pathogenesis, treatment.

Burger, W.L.  1975.  A case of mild envenomation by the mangrove snake, Boiga dendrophila.  The Snake 7:99-100.  Reports localized bleeding, inflammation; concludes this species not dangerous.

Caras, R. A.  1975.  Dangerous to Man, revised edition.  Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, NY, 422 pp.  Writes "has not encountered a single case where a native rear-fanged snake caused a human death in the western hemisphere...however situation Africa different.

Kono, H. and Y. Sawai.  1975.  Systemic poisoning from the bite of Rhabdophis tigrinus.  The Snake 7:38-39.  Report localized swelling, severe ecchymosis, pain, edema, increased coagulation time, etc., treated with blood transfusions.

McDowell, S.B.  1975.  A catalogue of the snakes of New Guinea and the Solomons, with special reference to those in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum.  Part II.  Anilioidea and Pythoninae.  Journal of Herpetology 9(1):1-79.  Suggests Duvernoy's gland "a feature ... ancestral colubroids", absence in some present day genera due to degenerative evolution. 

Nahas, L., A.R. Hoge, A.S. Kamiguti, and R.C. Goris.  1975.  Characterization of the coagulant activity of the aglyphous Rhabdophis tigrinus snake venom.  Toxicon 13(2):111-112. (abstract) Report venom clots human plasma, produces prothrombin activator from factor X, has no direct thrombin activity.

Schaefer, N.  1975.  Fang replacement in the snakes Dispholidus typus and Thelotornis kirtlandii.  Herpetologica 31(1):102-104.  Reports number fang sockets African opisthoglyphs, discusses fang replacement Dispholidus, Thelotornis.

Gehlbach, F.R.  1974.  Evolutionary relations of southwestern ringneck snakes (Diadophis punctatus).  Herpetologica 30(2):140-148.  Suggests that ophiophagous subspecies may use venom to subdue prey.

Grogan, W.L., Jr.  1974.  Effects of accidental envenomation from the saliva of the eastern hognose snake, Heterodon platyrhinos.  Herpetologica 30(3):248-249.  Reports localized bleeding, pain, swelling, discoloration; also nausea, anxiety.

Johanbocke, M.M.  1974.   Effects of a bite from Conophis lineatus (Squamata: Colubridae).  Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herpetological Society 22:39.  Reports swelling and inflammation in arm after bite to fingers.

Minton, S.A., Jr.  1974.  Venom Diseases.  Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, IL, 235 pp.  Comments toxicity colubrids, reports studies antigenic relationships Dispholidus venom.

Mittleman, M.B. and R.C. Goris.  1974.  Envenomation from the bite of the Japanese colubrid snake Rhabdophis tigrinus (Boie).  Herpetologica 30(2):113-119.  Report haemorrhage, impairment blood coagulation; discuss therapy; warn this species dangerous.

Nicolson, I. C., P. A. Ashby, N. D. Johnson, J. Versey, and L. Slater.  1974.  Boomslang bite with haemorrhage and activation of complement by the alternate pathway.  Clinical and Experimental Immunology 16():295-300.  Report Dispholidus typus bite, Europe, patient believed pet snake harmless; consumption coagulopathy treated with specific anti-venom, etc.; evidence activation complement alternate pathway.

Pitman, C.R.S.  1974.  A Guide to the Snakes of Uganda (revised edition).  Wheldon and Wesley, Ltd., Codicot, xxii + 290 pp.  Provides remarks on 16 back-fanged genera; considers Dispholidus, Thelotornis, perhaps Boiga blandingii dangerous.

Shaw, C.E. and S. Campbell.  1974.  Snakes of the American West.  Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY.  328 pp.  Speculate on toxicity in Diadophis; discuss rear-fanged snakes of region, consider these harmless to humans.

Simmonds, A.  1974.  A poison that's worth more than gold.  Sunday Times Colour Magazine, Johannesburg, South Africa (November 10):3,6,10-11.  Publicizes high toxicity boomslang bite "early symptoms...deceptively undramatic," haemorrhage alter, treatment specific serum; notes bite case Germany; includes photo boomslang fang.

Groves, F.  1973.  Reproduction and venom in Blanding's tree snake Boiga blandingi.  International Zoo Yearbook (13):106-108.  Reports bites Boiga blandingi, Dispholidus typus (zoo specimens) lethal to mammals - localized hemorrhage and edema, liver necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage and congestion observed.

Matell, G., D. Nyman, B. Werner, and S. Wilhelmsson.  1973.  Consumption coagulopathy caused by a boomslang bite a case report.  Thrombosis Research 3(2):173-182.  Report delayed onset bleeding, consumption coagulopathy, secondary fibrinolysis, hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, impairment renal function; treated with heparin, whole blood, specific antivenom, etc.

Nakayama, Y., S. Furuya, T. Yamada, Y. Hirakawa, and F. Kosaka.  1973.  The treatment by artificial dialysis of a snakebite patient with an intravascular coagulation syndrome.  Japanese Journal of Nephrology 4:269.  See Mittleman and Goris (1978) above for this account of Rhabdophis tigrinus envenomation.

Skinner, H.A.  1973.  Snakes and Us - An Introduction to East African Herpetology.  East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, xvi + 146 pp.  Reports "eastern link-marked sand-snake" bite - "hand was swollen for a week;" notes species "mildly venomous."

Shiwaku, Y., M. Hirakawa, I Goto, T. Yokota, and F. Kosaka.  1973.  Treatment in I.C.U. of the patient of D.I.C. and acute renal failure caused by snake bite.  Nippon Masui Gakki 22(12):1422-1431.  Report "Natrix natrix" bite - D.I.C., kidney damage; exchange blood transfusion, hemodialysis; venom hemolytic, fibrinolytic but no evidence coagulant effect (from abstract English).

Boquet, P. and H. Saint Girons.  1972.  Etude immunologique des glandes salivaires du vestibule buccal de quelques Colubridae opistoglyphes.  Toxicon 10:635-644.  Report Duvernoy's gland antigens cross react with viperid, elapid antivenoms.

Freyvogel, T.A.  1972.  Poisonous and venomous animals in East Africa.  Acta Tropica 29(4):401-451.  Discusses toxicity colubrids; notes Dispholidus "potentially dangerous", "may inflate ... throat" before biting.

Klauber, L.M.  1972.  Rattlesnakes, Vol. 1 and 2, Second Edition.  Zoological Society of San Diego, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA., 1533pp.  Considers back-fanged snakes United States "technically ... venomous" but harmless, advocates conservation; notes "pichocuate" myth - Trimorphodon biscutatus an 'abominable venomous snake'.

Nelsestuen, G.L. and J.W. Suttie.  1972.  The purification and properties of an abnormal prothrombin protein produced by dicumarol - treated cows.  The Journal of Biological Chemistry 247(24):8176-8182.  Report activation of a physiologically inactive prothrombin by Dispholidus typus venom.

Porter, K.R.  1972.  Herpetology.  W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA., 524 pp.  Writes "the venomous colubrid snakes are considered harmless to man," with exception of Dispholidus, Thelotornis

Stebbins, R.C.  1972.  California Amphibians and Reptiles.  University of California Press, Berkeley, CA., 152 pp.  Notes Trimorphodon "venomous but effect on man little known, probably not dangerous"; Hypsiglena "subdues its prey with venom".

Wapnick, S., L. Levin, and D.G. Broadley.  1972.  A study of snake bites admitted to a hospital in Rhodesia.  The Central African Journal of Medicine 18(7):137-141.  Relates boomslang bite case, hemorrhage, treated with antivenom, etc.; notes bite marks this species often ragged.

Cogger, H.G.  1971.  The venomous snakes of Australia and Melanesia.  Pp. 35-77.  In: W. Bücherl and E.E. Buckey (editors).  Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, Vol. 2. Venomous Vertebrates.  Academic Press, New York, NY, 687 pp.  Notes of rear-fanged species region "no serious effects ... ever ... recorded" from bites.

Domergue, Ch.A. and J. Richaud.  1971.  Hemolytic activity of the secretions of Duvernoy's gland in Lioheterodon (Colubridae Aglypha).  Archives Institute Pasteur Madagascar 40(1):145-148.  Report prolonged bleeding from bite; gland extract hemolytic, lethal to mice (paralysis, hemorrhage), "polyenzymatic."

Gygax, P.  1971.  Entwicklung, bau und funktion der giftdruse (Duvernoy's gland) von Natrix tessellata.  Acta Tropica 28(3):226-274.  Considers Duvernoy's gland a "genuine venom" gland, reports structure, toxicity, etc.

Mertens, R.  1971.  Observations on the slender snakes of the genus Leptophis.  Salamandra 7(3/4):117-122.  Reports bites these aglyphodont snakes produce localized bleeding, burning sensation (relieved by topical application alcohol); bites lethal to prey.

Soderberg, P.S.  1971.  Striking behaviour in the common green whip snake (Ahaetulla nasutus).  Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 68(3): 839.  Reports bites caused localized bleeding, itchiness, slight swelling.

Steward, J.W.  1971.  The Snakes of Europe.  Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, Rutherford, NJ, 238 pp.  Notes Macroprotodon, Telescopus, Malpolon "not normally dangerous" (however of these) Malpolon appears most toxic.

Sweeney, R.C.H.  1971.  Snakes of Nyasaland.  A. Asher and Co. N.V., Amsterdam.  Discusses myths, toxicity native 'back-fanged' snakes; indicates venom most genera neurotoxic; reports Thelotornis bite - swelling, pain, fever but no "true haemophilia".

Campden-Main, S.M.  1970.  A Field Guide to the Snakes of South Vietnam.  Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, City of Washington, 114 pp.  Reports bite Ahaetulla prasina, local effects; Cerberus rhynchops, no envenomation.

Cornelissen, T.  1970.  Erpeton tentaculatum, een vissende slang.  Lacerta (Netherlands) 29(1):3-6.  Reports "poison must be very weak" - no effect on fish.

Gyi, K.K.  1970.  A revision of colubrid snakes of the subfamily Homalopsinae.  University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 20(2):47-223, 38 figures.  Describes rear fangs, notes venom present, indicates "only two species - Enhydris bocourti and E. plumbea - are known to bite savagely ... ".

Henderson, R.W.  1970.  Feeding behavior, digestion, and water requirements of Diadophis punctatus arnyi Kennicott.  Reports no discomfort from bites.

Kochva, E. and C. Gans.  1970.  Salivary glands of snakes.  Clinical Toxicology 3(3):363-387.  Review structure, toxicity, etc.  Duvernoy's gland; include comment "poison glands ... lower jaws" some colubrids.

Mebs, D.  1970.  A comparative study of enzyme activities in snake venoms.  International Journal of Biochemistry 1(3):335-342.  Reports Leptodeira annulata venom contains "few enzymes in comparison to other snake venoms".

Vad, N.E. and M.V. Sant.  1970.  Toxicity of salivary glands of some Indian snakes.  Toxicon 8(2):158-159.  (abstract)  Report Duvernoy's gland extract Dryophis mildly toxic to mice; extracts Ptyas, Lycodon, Natrix, Tropidonotus not toxic.

Vick, J.A.  1970.  Effects of actual snake bite and venom injection on vital physiological function.  Toxicon 8(2):159.  (abstract)  Reports venom (two species?) Boiginae lethal to dogs - "paralysis ... respiratory mechanism."

Whitaker, R.  1970.  Slight reaction from bites of the rear-fanged snakes Boiga ceylonensis (Gunther) and Dryophis nasutus (Lacepede).  Journal Bombay Natural History Society 67(1):113.  Reports localized bleeding, swelling, itching; notes allergy to venom "only danger" from bites.

Hardy, L.M. and R.W. McDiarmid.  1969.  The amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico.  University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 18(3):39-252.  Report possible envenomation of toad by Leptodeira maculata, speculate "mild venom utilized" to secure prey.

Kano, R.  1969.  Venomous snakes of South Africa and Kenya.  The Snake 1(1):35-42.  Includes discussion on rear-fanged South African snakes, provides information on boomslang antivenom.

Lakier, J.B. and V.U. Fritz.  1969.  Consumptive coagulopathy caused by a boomslang bite.  South African Medical Journal (23 August) 1052-1055.  Report disseminated intravascular coagulation, treated with antivenom, haemodialysis, etc.; speculate pathogenesis.

MacKay, N., J.C. Ferguson, J. Ashe, A. Bagshawe, A.T.T. Forrester, and G.P. McNicol.  1969.  The venom of the boomslang (Dispholidus typus): in vivo and in vitro studies.  Thrombosis et Diathesis Haemorrhagica 21:234-244.  Report bite "trivial graze" - extensive bruising, antivenom therapy; confirm coagulant nature venom.

Minton, S.A. Jr., and M.R. Minton.  1969.  Venomous Reptiles.  Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY, 274 pp.  Provide section on "venomous colubrids" - venom apparatus, venom delivery, toxicity to prey and humans.

Robertson, S.S.D. and G.R. Delpierre.  1969.  Studies on African snake venoms - IV  Some enzymatic activities in the venom of the boomslang Dispholidus typus.  Toxicon 7:(3)189-194.  Report caseinase, amino acid esterase activity; discuss possible significance arginine esterase activity.

Broadley, D.G.  1968.  The venomous snakes of central and South Africa. Pp. 403-435.  In:  W. Bucherl, E.E. Buckley, and V. Deulofeu (editors).  Venomous Animals and their Venoms, Vol. 1.  Venomous Vertebrates.  Academic Press, New York, NY,  707 pp.  Notes: Dispholidus, Thelotornis lethal; Dispholidus can strike with fangs pointed forward, most bites provoked.

Chapman, D.S.  1968.  The symptomatology, pathology, and treatment of the bites of venomous snakes of central and southern Africa. Pp. 463-527.  In: W.  Bucherl, E.E. Buckley, and V. Deulofeu (editors). Venomous Animals and their Venoms, Vol. 1.  Venomous Vertebrates.  Academic Press, New York, NY,  707 pp.  Considers Dispholidus, Thelotornis, Trimerorhinus most important (in this order) toxic colubrids of region.

Christensen, P.A.  1968.  The venoms of central and south African snakes.  Pp. 437-461.  In: W. Bucherl, E.E. Buckley, and V. Deulofeu (editors).  Venomous Animals and their Venoms, Vol. 1.  Venomous Vertebrates.  Academic Press, New York, NY, 707 pp.  Reports Thelotornis venom not neutralized by Dispholidus antivenom, provides additional information toxinology these species; notes "secretion ... fangless" Philothamnus natalensis "strongly" coagulates blood.

Department of the Navy, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.  1968.  Poisonous Snakes of the World.  United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 212 pp.  List Dispholidus, Thelotornis capable fatal bites; note Boiga, Alsophis, Tachymensis, Leptophis appear less toxic.

Gooneratne, B.W.M.  1968.  The poisonous land snakes of Ceylon.  Ceylon Medical Journal 13(1):19-25.  Indicates bites from  catsnake (Mapila, Sinh.), green whipsnake (Ehetulla, Esgulla, Sinh.) - both opisthoglyphs - produce only localized reactions.

Isemonger, R.M.  1968.  Snakes of Africa.  Books of Africa (Pty) Limited, Cape Town, 263 pp.  Discusses rear-fanged snakes of Africa - general accounts, notes on venomous nature.

Mebs, D.  1968.  Analysis of Leptodeira annulata venom.  Herpetologica 24(4):338-339.  Reports venom hemorrhagic, lethal to mice; proteolytic in vitro; contains relatively few enzymes.

Whitaker, R.  1968.  10.  The dog-faced watersnake (Cerberus rhynchops) in the Bombay area and notes on its habits.  Journal Bombay Natural History Society 66(2):386.  Comments "bites are superficial and non-toxic", notes specimens rarely attempt to bite.

Wickler, W.  1968.  Mimicry in Plants and Animals.  World Universe Library, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY, 255 pp.  Discusses possible example Mertensian mimicry - coral snakes mimic rear fanged colubrids with similar color pattern (New World).  

Bailey, J.R.  1967.  The synthetic approach to colubrid classification.  Herpetologica 23(2):155-161.  Notes "opisthoglyphy has long been known to have had a multiple origin ...  ."

Beiran, D. and G. Currie.  1967.  Snake bite due to Thelotornis kirtlandii (vine snake, bird snake or twig snake).  The Central African Journal of Medicine 13(6):137-139.  Report bleeding, haematoma, greatly prolonged prothrombin time, etc.; discuss treatment, pathogenesis.

Gardner-Thorpe, C.  1967.  Snakebite poisoning.  British Medical Journal (August 26):558.  Reports European grass snake bite - "local pain ... tenderness ... dilated pupils ... weakness apparently not caused by fear alone".

Myers, C.W.  1967.  The pine woods snake, Rhadinaea flavilata (Cope).  Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 11(2):47-97.  Reports possible toxic effect of bite on larger prey (lizards).

Taub, A.M.  1967.  Comparative histological studies on Duvernoy's gland of colubrid snakes.  Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 138 (article 1):1-50.  Reports findings 180 species (120 genera), provides extensive literature review.

Willard, D.E.  1967.  Evidence for toxic saliva in Rhadinaea flavilata (the yellow lipped snake).  Herpetologica 23(3):238.  Reports bite lethal to frogs, writes "these tests ... show a venom ... present".

Heatwole, H. and I.B. Banuchi.  1966.  Envenomation by the colubrid snake, Alsophis portoricensis.  Herpetologica 22(2):132-134.  Report variety of effects - pain, swelling, cellulitis, adenitis, etc.

Minton, S.A., Jr.  1966.  A contribution to the herpetology of West Pakistan.  Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 134 (article 2):27-184, text figures 1-12, plates 9-36, tables 1-7, maps 1-5.  Notes of Psammophis - "both constriction and venom to subdue prey"; reports bite case - no effects, "unlikely" rear fangs engaged.

Russell, F.E. and L. Lauritzen.  1966.  Antivenins.  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 60(6):797-810.  Report Dispholidus typus antivenin available, South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg.

Taub, A.M.  1966.  Ophidian cephalic glands.  Journal of Morphology 118(4):529-542.  Recommends term "Duvernoy's gland" for colubrid venom gland, notes earlier synonyms, e.g. parotid gland.

Anderson, P.  1965.  The Reptiles of Missouri.  University of Missouri Press.  Columbia, MO, 330 pp.  Reports self experimentation with Heterodon platyrhinos - toxic reaction from saliva not observed.

Fitch, H.S.  1965.  An ecological study of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis.  University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History, 15(10):493-564, plates 23-25.  Reports punctures from rear maxillary teeth bleed profusely.

Fowlie, J.A.  1965.  The Snakes of Arizona.  Azul Quinta Press, Fallbrook, CA, 164 pp.  Reports Oxybelis aeneus auratus bite - blistering, numbness; notes "venom is highly toxic to lizards".

Ionides, C.J.P.  1965.  Mambas and Man-Eaters - A Hunter's Story.  Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York, NY, 248 pp.  Includes account death of Erick Locke (African game ranger) from vine snake bite - "haemorrhaged in every organ in the body".

Kochva, E.  1965.  The development of the venom gland in the opisthoglyph snake Telescopus fallax with remarks on Thamnophis sirtalis (Colubridae, Reptilia).  Copeia (2):147-154.  Reports "fangs and venom glands" develop from common primordium in both species.

Weaver, W.G., Jr.  1965.  The cranial anatomy of the hog-nosed snakes (Heterodon).  Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 9(7):275-304.  Discusses role enlarged rear maxillary teeth ("puncture inflated toads"), speculates Heterodon "mildly toxic".

Kapus, E.J.  1964.  Anatomical evidence for Heterodon being poisonous.  Herpetologica 20(2):137-138.  Reports no evidence of grooves in enlarged rear maxillary teeth, notes occurrence parotid gland variable.

Strover, A.E.  1964.  Some principles of the clinical recognition, assessment and treatment of snakebite.  The Central African Journal of Medicine 10(8):283-288.  In essay for casualty officers includes treatment boomslang bite - blood transfusion, etc.

Lane, M.   1963.  Life with Ionides.  Hamish Hamilton Ltd., London, 180 pp.  Gives circumstances fatal vine snake bite game ranger Africa.

Mason, J.H.  1963.  Snakebite and its treatment.  Central African Journal of Medicine 9(6):219-225.  Notes boomslang not aggressive, but a risk if handled; antivenom available.

McAlister, W.H.  1963.  Evidence of mild toxicity in the saliva of the hognose snake (Heterodon).  Herpetologica 19(2):132-137.  Reports extracts labial salivary glands H. platyrhinos toxic to amphibians (hemorrhage, inflammation, death), nontoxic to mice.

Wellman, J.  1963.  A revision of snakes of the genus Conophis (family Colubridae, from middle America).  University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 15(6):251-295, 9 figures.  Discusses venom apparatus; reviews, reports localized effects (pain, swelling) of poisonous bite.

Spies, S.K., L.F. Malherbe, and W.J. Pepler.  1962.  Boomslangbyt met afibrinogenemie.  South African Medical Journal 36(40):834-838.  Report fatal boomslang bite - hemorrhage, renal failure, etc.; discuss pathogenesis, therapy.

Webb, R.G., J.K. Jones, Jr., and G.W. Byers.  1962.  Some reptiles and amphibians from Korea. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 15(2):149-173.  Relate reports possible effects integumental poison gland secretions Rhabdophis tigrina lateralis.

Hegeman, G.  1961.  Enzymatic constitution of Alsophis saliva and its biological implications.  Breviora (134):1-8.  Reports assays for spreading factor, hemolysin, etc.  Alsophis, Natrix saliva, Crotalis venom.

Smith, P.W.  1961.  The amphibians and reptiles of Illinois.  Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 28 (article 1):1-298.  Notes of Tantilla gracilis hallowelli "minute poison glands ... rear fangs ... too small to bite man".

Terent'ev, P.V.  1961.  Herpetology - A Manual on Amphibians and Reptiles.  Moscow, 313 pp.  (English translation - Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1965).  Uses term 'suspect' snakes in reference to poisonous nature rear fang species.

Wykes, A.  1961.  Snake Man - The Story of C.J.P. Ionides.  Simon and Schuster, New York, NY, 269 pp.  Relates Ionides observations on some opisthoglyphs Africa - venoms "poison ... blood ... perforate ... veins".

Blake, D.K.  1960.  Venom extraction from a back-fanged snake (Dispholidus typus).  Journal Herpetological Association of Rhodesia (13):7-8.  Recommends technique similar to that for elapids.

Blaylock, R.S.  1960.  A bite from a vine snake in Bulawayo.  Journal Herpetological Association of Rhodesia (12):8-9.  Reports headache, vomiting, bleeding, etc.; treatment included RBC transfusions.

Bragg, A.N.  1960.  Is Heterodon venomous?  Herpetologica 16:121-123.  Reports possible toxic effects (edema, etc.) from bite.

Broadley, D.G.  1960.  Case history of a boomslang (Dispholidus) bite.  Journal Herpetological Association of Rhodesia (11):7-8.  Reports headache, vomiting, severe hemorrhage; treatment included blood transfusion.

Donoso-Barros, R. and S. Cardenas.  1959.  Estudio del veneno de Dromicus chamissonis (Wiegmann).  Investigaciones Zoologicas Chilenas. 6:93-95.  Report venom lethal to mice, etc., hemorrhagic; "proteolitic" in vitro.

Klynstra, F. B.  1959.  Pas op met "Ongevaarlijke" slangen.  Lacerta 17:31.  "Be careful with 'undangerius' snakes": reviews deaths K. P. Schmidt (Dispholidus), F. J. de Rivella Lock (Thelotornis); reports some Natrix "strong poison...experienced poisoning" from bite Natrix sipedon confluens (from summary English).

Duellman, W.E.  1958.  A monographic study of the colubrid snake genus Leptodeira.  Bulletin American Museum of Natural History 114 (article 1):1-152.  Includes aspects dentition, venom gland, behavior, toxicity to prey.

FitzSimons, D.C. and H.M. Smith.  1958.  Another rear-fanged African snake lethal to humans.  Herpetologica 14:198-202.  Report lethal Thelotornis bite (hemorrhagic), and additional cases.

Funderburg, J.B., Jr.  1958.  The yellow-lipped snake, Rhadinaea flavilata Cope, in North Carolina.  Journal of the Mitchell Society 74:135-136.  Reports feeding behavior, posterior teeth and venom not utilized?

Pope, C.H.  1958.  Fatal bite of captive African rear-fanged snake (Dispholidus).  Copeia (4):280-282.  Reports death of herpetologist Karl P. Schmidt, hemorrhagic effects.

Broadley, D.G.  1957.  Fatalities from the bites of Dispholidus and Thelotornis and a personal case history.  Journal of the Herpetological Association of Rhodesia (1):5.  Reviews fatal bite cases, reports effects Thelotornis bite - bleeding, etc.

Broadley, D.G.  1957.  Snakes of southern Rhodesia - 4.  The south-eastern vine or twig snake.  African Wild Life 11(4):297-300.  Notes toxicity to cold-blooded prey, mentions bite cases uncommon.

Tweedie, M.W.F.  1957.  The Snakes of Malaya, 2nd edition.  Government Printing Office, Singapore, 143 pp.  Reports no record envenomation from Boiga but recommends caution.

Wright, A.H. and A.A. Wright.  1957.  Handbook of Snakes, vol. 1.  Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY, 564 pp.  In reference to Leptodeira report "unable ... detect ... effect ... poison on ... animals".

Wright, A.H. and A.A. Wright.  1957.  Handbook of Snakes, vol. 2.  Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY, -1105 pp.  Relate from Vorhies, Perkins information toxicity Oxybelis, Trimorphodon.

Broadley, D.G.  1956.  Snakes of southern Rhodesia - 1 The striped skaapsteker or three-lined snake Psammophylax (formerly Trimerorhinus) tritaeniatus.  African Wildlife 10(3):215-216.  Comments snakebite produces "only local swelling" but that venom paralyzes prey.

Buckley, E.E. and N. Porges (editors).  1956.  Venoms.  Publication No. 44,  American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., 467 pp.  From first international conference venoms- Dispholidus only toxic colubrid mentioned.

Jameson, D. L. and A. M. Jameson, Jr.  1956.  Food habits and toxicity of the venom of the night snake.  Herpetologica 12():240.  Report venom rapidly lethal to prey (lizard), faster than observed by Cowles, 1941, Copeia.

Johnson, R. G.  1956.  The origin and evolution of the venomous snakes.  Evolution 10(1)56-65.  Writes "the very existence of the venomous families and the...slightly or appreciably venomous colubrids" argues for selective value venom.

Cansdale, G.  1955.  Reptiles of West Africa.  Penguin Books, London, 103 pp.  Questions if boomslang is dangerous, considers twig snake "almost harmless".

Christensen, P.A.  1955.  South African snake venoms and antivenoms.  The South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg, 129 pp.  Reviews reports toxicity, reports fatal Dispholidus bite.

Deraniyagala, P.E.P.  1955.  A Colored Atlas of some Vertebrates from Ceylon, vol. 3, Serpentoid Reptilia.  Government Press, Ceylon, 121 pp.  Lists Boiga ceylonensis moderately toxic, bite lethal to chicken.

Isemonger, R. M.  1955.  Snakes and snake catching in Southern Africa.  Howard Timmins, Cape Town, 105 pp.  Reports boomslang bite through clothing moderate envenomation; Trimerorhinus rhombeatus, Psammophis sibilans bites - swelling, pain, malaise, etc., effects P. sibilans more severe; additional information of interest.

Rose, W.  1955.  Snakes - mainly South African.  Maskew Miller Ltd., Cape Town, 213 pp.  Includes material toxicity colubrids, account shot-gun blast treatment boomslang bite.

Zweifel, R. and K.S. Norris.  1955.  Contribution to the herpetology of Sonora, Mexico.  American Midland Naturalist 54(1):230-249.  Give account Leptophis bite - localized stinging sensation, inflammation.

Neill, W.T.  1954.  Evidence of venom in snakes of the genera Alsophis and Rhadinaea.  Copeia (1):59-60.  Reports Alsophis bite - localized erythema, "streaks", discoloration; Rhadinaea bite quiscence in prey.

Swaroop, S. and B. Grab.  1954.  Snakebite mortality in the world.  Bulletin of the World Health Organization 10:35-76.  Note Dispholidus typus highly toxic, Oxybelis and Pseudoboa "semi-poisonous".

Goodman, J.D.  1953.  Further evidence of the venomous nature of the saliva of Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha.  Herpetologica 9:174-176.  Reports bites lethal to lizards.

Kitazume, Y.  1953.  On the increasing action of nuchal gland inclusions of the snake, Natrix tigrina, upon the blood pressure of the rabbit.  Zoological Magazine 61(1):27-30 (225-227).  Reports extract i.v. increased blood pressure rabbit; promoted contraction heart, uterus in vitro; additional properties (from abstract English). Dundee, H.A.  1950.  Additional records of Hypsiglena from Oklahoma, with notes on the behavior and the eggs.  Herpetologica 6(2):28-30.  Notes worm snake showed "no ill effects" following Hypsiglena bite.

Rose, W. 1950.  The Reptiles and Amphibians of Southern Africa.  Maskew Miller, Ltd., Cape Town, 378 pp.  Considers Dispholidus venom an anticoagulant, very toxic to birds.

Taylor, E.H.  1950.  The snakes of Ceylon.  University of Kansas Science Bulletin 33 (part 2):159-603.  Comments on "enlarged grooved fangs" of Balanophis ceylonensis.

Minton, S. A., Jr.  1949.  The black-headed snake in southern Indiana.  Copeia (2): 146-147.  Questions if Tantilla is venomous even to prey - "I forcibly induced a specimen to bite an earthworm, which did not show any ill effects."

Neill, W.T.  1949.  Two cases of snake bite in New Guinea.  Copeia (3):228-229.  Reports Ahaetulla papuae bite - inflammation, pain, swelling in axilla.

Smith, M. and A. d' A. Bellairs.  1947.  The head glands of snakes, with remarks on the evolution of the parotid gland and teeth of the opisthoglypha.  Journal of the Linnean Society of Zoology 41:351-368, 5 plates.  Discuss venom apparatus of colubrids, action venom nervous system prey.

Beebe, W.  1946.  Field notes on the snakes of Kartabo, British Guiana, and Caripito, Venezuela.  Zoologica: New York Zoological Society 31(4):11-52, plates I-XIII.  Mentions Leptophis a. ahaetulla bite - "its teeth tore the flesh," slight bleeding, no mention toxic effect.

Lewis, T.H.  1946.  Notes on reptiles from the state of Washington.  Copeia (3):155-159.  Reports Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha bite effects on lizards - lethargy, etc.

Loveridge, A.  1946.  Reptiles of the Pacific World.  The Macmillan Co., New York, NY, 259 pp. (reprint Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 1974).  Indicates Boiga, Chrysopelea, Dryophis not dangerous.

Cochran, D.M.  1944.  Dangerous reptiles.  Smithsonian Institution Annual Report, 1943: 275-323, 1-23 plates.  From a Smithsonian wartime handbook, brief review rear-fanged snakes, notes Dispholidus dangerous.

Krutzsch, P.H.  1944.  California lyre snake feeding on the pocketed bat.  Journal of Mammalogy 25(4):410-411.  Speculates venom useful subduing prey in narrow rocky crevices.

Mittleman, M.B.  1944.  Feeding habits of a Central American opisthoglyph snake.  Copeia (2):122.  Reports Conophis lineatus possible venom effect on prey.

Tanner, W.W.  1944.  A taxonomic study of the genus Hypsiglena.  The Great Basin Naturalist 5(3/4):25-92.  Mentions bites may be fatal to lizards.

Smith, M.A.  1943.  The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, vol. 3. - Serpentes.  Taylor and Francis, London, 583 pp.  Notes Enhydris bocourti can "inflict a very serious bite".

Cawston, F.G.  1941.  The grooved teeth of back-fanged snakes.  South African Dental Journal 15:224-225.  Gives brief account, emphasis on boomslang.

Cowles, R.B.  1941.  Evidence of venom in Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus.  Copeia (1):4-6.  Reports bite apparently lethal to lizards, considers this snake harmless to humans.

Schmidt, K.P.  and D.D. Davis.  1941.  Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada.  G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, NY, 365 pp.  Remark bites harmless snakes bleed profusely, suggest anticoagulant effect.

Grasset, E. and A.W. Schaafsma.  1940.  Studies on the venom of the "boomslang" (Dispholidus typus).  South African Medical Journal 14:236-241.  Report venom yield; lethality, animals; conclude venom coagulant, proteolytic principles.

Grasset, E. and A.W. Schaafsma.  1940.  Antigenic characteristics of "boomslang" (Dispholidus typus) venom and preparation of a specific antivenene by means of formalized venom.  South African Medical Journal 14:484-489.  Report effective specific antivenene, heterologous antivenenes not protective.

Klauber, L.M. 1940.  The lyre snake (genus Trimorphodon) of the United States.  Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 9(19):163-194, plate 7, map.  Considers it venomous, probably not dangerous - small size, inefficient biting mechanism.

Brown, B.C.  1939.  The effect of Coniophanes poisoning in man.  Copeia (2):109.  Reports envenomation produced localized effects - pain, inflammation, numbness, etc.

Ditmars, R.L.  1939 (1948).  A Field Book of North American Snakes.  Doubleday and Co., Garden City, NY, 305pp, 48 plates.  Speculates bites opisthoglyphs N.A. may weaken tissues thus promoting "septic conditions".

Malnate, E.  1939.  A study of the yellow-lipped snake, Rhadinaea flavilata (Cope).  Zoologica: New York Zoological Society 24:359-366, 1 plate.  Notes lizard seized, chewed became quiescent.

Rodman, G.B.  1939.  Habits of Trimorphodon vandenburghi in captivity.  Copeia (1):50.  Reports bite effects on mouse - "accelerated breathing ... dazed wobbling ... head".

Blanchard, F.N.  1938.  Snakes of the genus Tantilla in the United States.  Field Museum of Natural History - Zoological Series (Chicago) 20(28):369-376.  Notes "grooved fangs posteriorly on the maxilla".

Smith, M.A.  1938.  The nucho-dorsal glands of snakes.  Proceedings of the Zoological Society Series B:575-583, 1 plate.  Gives three references for localized toxic effect of secretion.

Taylor, E.H. and H.M. Smith.  1938.  Miscellaneous notes on Mexican snakes.  University of Kansas Science Bulletin 25(13):239-258.  Report bite Conophis vittatus produced pain, inflammation, residual pain finger joint.

Brown, B.C.  1937.  Notes on Coniophanes imperialis (Baird).  Copeia (4):234.  Reports possible lethal envenomation of toad.

Crimmins, M.L. 1937.  A case of Oxybelis poisoning in man.  Copeia (4):233. Reports localized effects (inflammation, blister formation, etc.), treated with incision, suction.

Fraser, A.G.L. 1937.  The snakes of Deolali.  Journal Bombay Natural History Society 39 (3 part 2):464-501, 4 plates.  Provides comprehensive information Asian genera, gives findings of Mme. Phisalix.

Pope, C.H. 1937.  Snakes Alive and How They Live.  Viking Press, New York, NY, 238 pp.  Rates Dispholidus highly venomous (fatal bites).

Ditmars, R.L.  1936.  The Reptiles of North America.  Doubleday and Co., New York, NY, 476 pp., 135 plates.  Notes Trimorphodon, Leptodeira capable poisonous bites; mentions boomslang, possibly mussurana, dangerous.

Dunn, E.R.  1936.  Notes on North American Leptodeira.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 22:689-698.  Reports bite "caused marked ... not ... serious, symptoms of poisoning".

Kelly, A.H.  1936.  Snakes of Maryland.  The Natural History Society of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, 103 pp.  Relates story Heterodon - man inhaled "poisoned breath", off work two years.

Carnochan, F.G. and H.C. Adamson.  1935.  The Empire of the Snakes.  Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York, NY, 290 pp.  Provide account 'snake-people ... Tanganyika', ceremony confers active immunity against "boomslanges" venom?

Cowles, R.B. and C.M. Bogert.  1935.  Observations on the California lyre snake, Trimorphodon vandenburghi Klauber, with notes on the effectiveness of its venom.  Copeia (2):80-85.  Describe venom effect lizard, rodents; suggest venom hemorrhagic; describe fangs.

Ditmars, R.L. and W. Bridges.  1935.  Snake-Hunters' Holiday.  D. Appleton-Century Co., New York, NY, 309 pp.  Note lora or parrot snake 'non-poisonous - just a rear-fang snake'.

Nakamura, K.  1935.  On a new integumental poison gland found in the nuchal region of a snake, Natrix tigrina.  Memoirs of the College of Science, Kyoto Imperial University, Series B, 10(3), Article 9:229-240, plate XII.  Reports secretion produced extreme eye irritation, discusses gland structure, nature of secretion.

Thomson, D.F.  1935.  Preliminary notes on a collection of snakes from Cape York Peninsula.  Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 3:723-731, plates I-VI.  Reports bite Hypsirhina polylepis highly toxic to frogs, toxicity to humans uncertain.

Force, E.R.  1934.  A local study of the opisthoglyph snake Tantilla gracilis  Baird and Girard.  Papers Michigan Academy of Science 20:645-659.  Notes regarded harmless, fangs very small, never bites, nothing known poison.

McCann, C.  1934.  A whip-snake (Dryophis mycterizans Daud.) feeding on the lizard (Calotes versicolor).  Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 37:226-227.  Author bitten and "still alive to tell the tale".

Slevin, J.R.  1934.  A Handbook of Reptiles and Amphibians of the Pacific States.  California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, 73 pp. Lists Tantilla, Coniophanes, Leptodeira, Trimorphodon venomous but not dangerous.

Ditmars, R.L.  1933.  Reptiles of the World.  Macmillan Co., New York, NY, 321 pp, 89 plates.  Notes controversy regarding level toxicity Opisthoglypha.

Prather, S.H.  1933.  "Non-poisonous snakes".  Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 36(2):391-394.  Discusses toxicity colubrids, emphasis poison (parotid) gland, reviews studies Phisalix, Caius.

Corkill, N.L.  1932-1933.  An inquiry into snake-bite in Iraq.  Indian Journal of Medical Research 20(2,3):599-625, 679-695.  Questions if opisthoglyphous snakes Iraq should be considered harmless.

Fitzsimons, F.W.  1932.  Snakes and the Treatment of Snake Bite.  The Specialty Press of S.A. Ltd., Cape Town, 70 pp.  Provides account which includes six fatal Dispholidus typus bites.

Gharpurey, K.G.  1932.  XXIX.  - Cases of snake bite.  Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 36(1):274-276.  Reports Coluber helena bite, possible Lycodon aulicus bite -  inflammation.

Sakamoto, T.  1932.  A severe case of "yamakagashi" (Natrix tigrina) snakebite with self-limiting hemorrhaging.  Gurentsugebito 6:116-122.  Gives report envenomation (from Mittleman and Goris, 1974, Herpetologica 30:113-119).

Ditmars, R.L.  1931.  Snakes of the World.  Macmillian Co., New York, NY, 207 pp, 84 plates.  Argues against denouncing rear-fanged snakes as dangerous, reports "Road Guarder" bite.

Ditmars, R. L. 1930.  The poisonous serpents of the New World a comparative review.  Bulletin of the New York Zoological Society 33(3):79-132.  Writes that "the New World rear-fanged serpents...have never been included among the dangerous reptiles."

Prater, S.H.  1930.  Poisonous snakes of India.  Indian Medical Record (Calcutta) 50:405-408.  Notes harmless snakebites death from fright, mentions toxicity non colubrid Silybura.

Smedley, N.  1930.  Poisonous snakes and their venom.  The Hong Kong Naturalist 1(4):155-160.  Notes Boiginae Asia probably not dangerous, bite effects localized.

Nicholls, L.  1929.  The identification of the land snakes of Ceylon.  Ceylon Journal of Medical Science 2:91-157.  Comments opisthoglyphs Ceylon slightly poisonous, reports experiment - catsnake venom not lethal to guinea pig.

Schmidt, K.P.  1929.  The truth about snake stories.  Zoology Leaflet 10, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL.  Notes regarding hog nosed snake - study, observation "proves ... it ... harmless".

Ditmars, R.L.  1928.  A reptile reconnaissance in Honduras.  Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 2(2):25-29.  Comments paralytic effect Oxybelis bite on lizards.

Klauber, L.M.  1928.  The Trimorphodon (lyre snake) of California, with notes on the species of the adjacent areas.  Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 5(11):183-194, plates 22,23.  Notes bite had no toxic effect on prey or human.

Loveridge, A.  1928.  37.  Notes on snakes and snake-bites in East Africa IV.  The back-fanged snakes.  Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 2(2):32-41.  In account natural history, etc. rates Dispholidus typus as only dangerous species.

Wall, F.  1928.  The Poisonous Terrestrial Snakes of Our British Indian Dominions ... .  Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay, ill + 173 pp.  Reports serious effects bites harmless snakes, attributes to fright.

Vorhies, C.T.  1926.  A new ophidian record for Arizona.  Copeia (150):156-157.  Notes Oxybelis acuminatus mildly poisonous, uses poison to subdue lizards.

Mole, R.R.  1924.  The Trinidad snakes.  Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1:I-X plates, 235-278.  Comments opisthoglyphs, notes bite aglyph lora Leptophis liocercus "stinging sensation".

Sarkar, S. Ch.  1923.  21.  A comparative study of the buccal glands and teeth of the Opisthoglypha, and a discussion on the evolution of the order from Aglypha.  Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London :295-322.  Reviews literature Smith (1818) - Phisalix (1914); from dissections, serial sections supports hypothesis Boulenger (1896) "Opisthoglypha...connecting-link between the Aglypha...and the viperidae."

Phisalix, M.  1922.  Animaux Venimeux et Venins, vol. 2.  Masson et Cie, Paris, xii + 864 pp.  Provides extensive coverage toxicity colubrids, numerous references cited.

Taylor, E.H.  1922.  The Snakes of the Philippine Islands.  Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Science, Manila, 312 pp, 37 plates.  Notes Homalopsinae, Boiginae some degree toxicity but not dangerous.

Van Denburgh, J.  1922.  The Reptiles of Western North America, vol. 2.  California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, 1028 pp.  Relates description rear fangs Trimorphodon lyrophanes.

Wall, F.  1921.  Snakes of Ceylon.  H.R. Cottle, Government Printer, Ceylon, 581 pp.  Reports Dryophis bite swollen, Oligodon bite death (from fright?); notes opisthoglypha Ceylon generally harmless.

Fitzsimons, F.W.  1919.  The Snakes of South Africa, 3rd edition.  T. Maskew Miller, Cape Town, xvi + 550 pp.  Provides comprehensive account opisthoglyphs; emphasizes venomous nature boomslangs, schaapstekers.

Winton, W.M.  1916.  The significance of venoms.  Scientific Monthly 2:475-478.  Speculates toxicity colubrids, reports parotid secretion toxic; from Texas Christian University.

Drieberg, C.  1915  Do rat-snakes strike?  Spolia Zeylanica 10:177.  States all snakes at least "slightly poisonous", reports case 'eye-snake' bite.

Boulenger, E.G.  1914.  Reptiles and Batrachians.  E.P. Dutton and Co., New York, NY, xiv + 278 pp.  Discusses rear fanged snakes; comments poison Montpellier snake, cobra have similar action.

D'Abreu, E.A.  1913-1914.  Effect of a bite from Schneider's water snake (Hypsirhina enhydris).  Journal Bombay Natural History Society 22:203.  Reports localized effects - inflammation, pain.

Andrews, W.H.  1913.  On the effects of the bite of certain opisthoglyphous snakes.  South African Journal of Science 9:269-276.  Provides review, reports bite several species lethal to mammals.

Boulenger, G.A.  1913.  The Snakes of Europe.  Methuen and Co., Ltd., London, 269 pp.  Discusses opisthoglyphous colubrids; reports Coelopeltis monspessulana bite - severe swelling, fever, etc.

Ditmars, R.L.  1912.  The feeding habits of serpents.  Zoologica: New York Zoological Society 1(11):197-238.  Reports colubrid bite effects on prey.

Fitz-Simons, F.W.  1909.  On the toxic action of the bite of the boomslang or South-African tree-snake (Dispholidus typus).  Annals and Magazine of Natural History 3 (series 8):271-278.  Reports two bite cases with hemorrhage, one fatal; reports bites kill animals.

Noguchi, H.  1909.  Snake venoms.  Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 111, Washington, D.C., 315 pp.  Provides comprehensive information colubrid toxinology circa early 20th century.

Pieris, P.E.  1909  Ribeiro's History of Ceilão, 2nd ed.  The Colombo Apothecaries Co., Ltd., Ceylon, xiv + 416 pp.  Makes reference to "virulent" arboreal snake Ceylon circa 1685.

Fletcher, T.B.  1908.  Notes on snakes from Diyatalawa, Ceylon.  Spolia Zeylanica 5(pt.18): 98-101.  Reports substance skin Macropisthodon plumbicolor may cause extreme eye irritation.

Willson, P.  1908.  Snake poisoning in the United States: a study based on an analysis of 740 cases.  Archives of Internal Medicine 1:516-570.  Briefly mentions opisthoglyphs United States.

Stejneger, L.  1907.  Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory.  Bulletin of the United States National Museum 58:1-577.  Discusses tiger snake, Natrix tigrina, no mention of toxicity.

Green, E.E.  1903.  Notes on the habits of the green whip-snake (Dryophis mycterizans, Daud.) in captivity.  Spolia Zeylanica 1:36-37.  Discusses beliefs 'eye-stabbing behavior'; reports bite eyelids, only tooth punctures noted.

MacVicar, N.  1902.  Snake poisoning in central Africa.  Journal of Tropical Medicine  (Jan. 1):1-3.  Reports effects possible Dispholidus typus ("mbobo") bite, systemic hemorrhage, etc.

Alcock, A. and L. Rogers.  1902.  "On the toxic properties of the saliva of certain 'non-poisonous' colubrines".  Proceedings Royal Society London 70:446-454.  Provide literature review, report parotid extracts several colubrids India lethal to mice.

Ridley, H. N.  1899.  The habits of Malay reptiles.  Journal Straits British Royal Asiatic Society (32):185-204.  Reports irritant effect Macropisthodon skin secretions.

Anderson, J.  1898.  Zoology of Egypt: Volume First.  Reptilia and Batrachia.  Bernard Quaritch, London, 371 pp, 50 plates.  Reviews findings Fontana, Phisalix and Bertrand; comments on fangs, etc.  Tarbophis, Coelopeltis.

West, G.S.  1898.  On the histology of the salivary, buccal, and harderian glands of the Colubridae, with notes on their tooth-succession and the relationships of the poison-duct.  Linnean Society of London Journal Zoology 26:517-526.  Discusses structure, significance of colubrid parotid gland.

Stejneger, L.  1895.  The poisonous snakes of North America.  Report of the United States National Museum for 1893:337-487.  Provides detailed review on "so called 'harmless' poisonous snakes" 1826-1893.

Loennberg, E.  1894.  Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in Florida in 1892 and 1893.  Proceedings of the United States National Museum 17(1003):317-339.  Relates effect Heterodon bite, implicates blood poisoning, toad secretions, etc.

Quelch, J.J.  1893.  Venom in harmless snakes.  Journal Linnean Society - The Zoologist 17:30-31.  Gives speculation, reports bite effects South American species, e.g. Erythrolamprus, Xenodon.

Barringer, P.B.  1892.  The venomous reptiles of the United States, with the treatment of wounds inflicted by them.  Gaillard's Medical Journal 55:7-19.  Comments American colubrids, including 'Spreading Adders', harmless; stresses whiskey lethal remedy.

Blatchley, W.S.  1891.  Notes on the batrachians and reptiles of Vigo County, Indiana.  Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 14(1):22-35.  Notes Heterodon considered venomous but is actually harmless.

Seiss, C.F.  1890.  The garter snake.  Scientific American 63:105.  Notes Eutaenia sirtalis "perfectly harmless."

Schneck, J.  1878.  Is the bite of the Heterodon or spreading adder, venomous?  Chicago Medical Journal and Examiner 37(6):585-587.  Illinois physician notes opinions vary, reports experiments show no poisonous effects.

Poey, F.  1873.  Mordedura de un jubo.  El Genio Cient. la Habana 1:94-98.  Reports poisonous bite from 'jubo', a snake considered harmless (from Minton, 1990, Journal of Wilderness Medicine 1:119-127).

Schlegel, H.  1843.  Essay on the Physiognomy of Serpents.  MacLachlan, Stewart, and Co., Edinburgh, 254 pp.  Concludes rear-fanged snakes not inherently venomous, fury makes saliva toxic.

Russell, P.  1796.  An Account of Indian Serpents, Collected on the Coast of Coromandel.  W. Bulmer and Co., Shakespeare Press, London, viii + 91 pp, 45 plates.  Reports re Coluber mycterizans "its bite on chickens, tried repeatedly, produced no other effects than pain".

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